Microprocessor and Microcontroller
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The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit micro controller that includes a CPU running
at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip.
A microcontroller (also mcu or μc) is a computer-on-a chip. It is a type of microprocessor
emphasizing high integration, low power consumption, self-sufficiency and cost- effectiveness,
in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a pc). In addition to the usual
arithmetic and logic elements of a general purpose microprocessor, the micro controller typically
integrates additional elements such as read-write memory for data storage, read-only memory
such as flash for code storage, EEPROM for permanent data storage, peripheral devices and
input/output interfaces. At clock speeds of as little as a few MHz or even lower, microcontroller
often operate at very low speed compared to modern day microprocessors, but this is adequate
for typical application. They consume relatively little power (milliwatts), and will generally have
the ability to sleep while waiting for an interesting peripheral event such as button press to wake
them up again to do power consumption while sleeping may be just nano watts, making them
ideal for low power and long lasting battery applications.