The aim of this book is to present the subject of Biotechnology to the undergraduate B.Sc. 2nd Year students of Biotechnology, M.P. Universities and students of various other Universities. This book provides an accurate and understandable matter on Biotechnology. The author has been extra cautious in presenting the matter in easy and lucid language. The diagrams are especially designed for clarity and simplicity. It is comparable at international level and fully based on scientific research and teaching. Thus, in this book many topics which are not easily available have been incorporated for the convenience of the students.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-80386-60-7
  • Chapter 1

    CHROMOSOMES: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Chromosomes are the nuclear components of special organization, individuality and function. They have the capability of self reproduction and play a vital role in the process of heredity, mutation, variation and evolutionary development. It was E. Strasburger (1875), who observed thread-like structures during cell division. These thread-like structures were named as chromosomes (Gr. Chrom — colour, soma — body) by Waldeyer in 1888. The dark staining network, which can readily be stained with basic dyes is termed as nuclear reticulum. The threads of this reticulum are made up of chromatin, which can be seen in the interphase nuclear stage during cell division. These chromatin threads or ribbon like structures are called CHROMOSOMES.
  • Chapter 2

    STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION OF CHROMATIDS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    While describing the structure of the chromosomes during various phases of cell cycle, cell biologists have introduced many terms for various components. It is thus necessary to be familiar with the following terms to understand the structure of the chromosome more clearly.
  • Chapter 3

    SPECIAL CHROMOSOMES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The function of chromosomes is to carry the genetic information from one cell generation to another. DNA being the only permanent component of chromosome structure is the sole genetic material of eukaryotes. Some cells at certain particular stages contain large nuclei with giant or large sized chromosomes.
  • Chapter 4

    STRUCTURAL AND NUMERICAL ABERRATIONS INVOLVING CHROMOSOMES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    During the present century, the science of cell genetics has made profound contributions to an understanding of the hereditary process. It was only in 1950’s however that geneticist were able to establish the number of chromosomes in the human cell. These are the structures in the cell nucleus that encode the hereditary plan; the normal number in the human cell proved to be 46. Soon afterward came the discovery that mongolism is associated with the presence of 47 chromosomes. Similar gross abnormalities in the chromosome complement of the tissue cells have since been established in other diseases of man. To look through the microscope at the chromosomes of man is to see the very stuff that human life is made of.
  • Chapter 5

    NATURE OF GENETIC MATERIAL: NUCLEIC ACIDS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The principal genetic material of living beings is Deoxyribonucleic acid and Ribonucleic acid which are chemically called as Nucleic acids. These are complex molecules composed of Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Phosphate and are larger than most proteins. In 1869, a young Swiss physician had isolated it from puss cells of salmon sperm, a previously identified macromolecular substance, to which he gave the name—nuclein but he was unaware of the structure and function of nuclein. In 1889, with the help of his student Richard Altman, he recognised nuclein with higher molecular weight and was associated with basic protein to which he gave the name, protamine. Emil Fischer, in 1880 identified Purines and Pyrimidines. Altmann, in 1899 for the first time used the term Nucleic acid to describe the phosphorus containing nuclein. Kosser was awarded Nobel prize, in 1910 for demonstrating the presence of two types of pyrimidines (C and T) and two types of purines (A and G) in nucleic acids. Ascoli Levine and Jones discovered two kinds of nucleic acids—DNA and RNA. They are polynucleotides, which means a polymer consisting of nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three components.
  • Chapter 6

    STRUCTURE OF DNA Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    DEOXYRIBOSE NUCLEIC ACID: AN INTRODUCTION DNA is formed in the cells of all animals, plants, prokaryotes and in most viruses. In eukaryotes, it is present in combination with proteins forming nucleoproteins. In prokaryotes (e.g., E. coli), the genetic material consists of a single giant molecule of DNA about 1000 microns in length, without any associated proteins. DNA is present mainly in the chromosomes. It has also been reported in cytoplasmic organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts. The DNA of all plants and animals and many viruses (polyoma virus, smallpox virus, bacteriophages T2, T4 and T6) is double stranded. In the bacteriophage f X 174, however, it is single stranded. In some viruses, the genetic material is RNA as in the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In tobacco virus, influenza virus, poliomyelitis virus and the bacterial viruses F2 and R17, the RNA is single stranded. In the reovirus and the wound tumour virus (in bacteria) and in higher plants and animals both DNA and RNA are present. Viruses usually contain either DNA or RNA.
  • Chapter 7

    DNA REPLICATION IN PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Cell has only one chromosome in prokaryotes or has many chromosomes as in eukaryotes. The whole genome must be replicated. Replication has started, it continues until the entire genome has been duplicated. The unit of DNA in which an individual act of replication occurs is called a replicons. In prokaryotes the initiation of replication is a single event involving a unique site on the bacterial chromosomes but in eukaryotic cells, initiation of replication is identified by the start of S-phase a protracted period, during which DNA synthesis occurs. A genome in a prokaryotic cell constitutes a single replicon, so the units of replication and segregation coincide. The largest such replicon is that of the bacterial chromosome itself. Initiation at a single origin sponsors replication of the entire genome, once for every cell division. Each haploid bacterium has a single chromosome, so this type of replication control is called single copy.
  • Chapter 8

    MOLECULAR BASIS OF LIFE, MENDELIAN’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE AND GENE INTERACTION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The living substance, which forms the cells and is responsible for all the properties of living beings is called protoplasm (Gr. Proto: Primitive or first + plasm). It is a viscous semifluid, jelly like substance with granules and globules of various sizes, suspended in it.
  • Chapter 9

    BANDING PATTERN IN HUMAN CHROMOSOMES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In 1912, Winiwater was successful attempt to count the number of human chromosomes. He was proposed that human chromosomes are 48 in women and 47 in man; in this number men having one X-chromosome and women having two X chromosome. Painter, in 1923, while examining the testicular material of man, observed a heteromorphic pair of sex chromosomes and proposed the XY mechanism of sex determination in man. Tjio & Levan (1956), cultured somatic cells from fibroblasts of human embroyos and counted the human chromosome number as 46. This chromosome number was confirmed by Ford and Hamerton while working with testicular material in the same year. Tjio and Levan provided greatly improved techniques for chromosome preparations. Moorhead et al., (1960), described a simple method of culturing of lymphocytes from human blood.
  • Chapter 10

    SEX DETERMINATION IN ANIMALS, SEX LINKAGES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    There are physiologic and cytologic proofs that sex is determined as soon as the egg is fertilized and that it depends on the gametes. Among the physiologic evidences is the finding that, identical twins—which originate from a single zygote are always of the same sex. Furthermore, in certain species having polyembryos development (e.g., armadillo), all the embryos that have develope from a single fertilized egg are of the same sex. Cytologic evidence was first obtained by Mc Clung, who demonstrated that the karyotype of a cell is composed of not only common chromosomes (autosomes), but also of one or more special chromosomes that are distinguished from the autosomes by their morphologic characteristics and behaviour. These were called accessory chromosomes, allosomes, heterochromosomes, or sex chromosomes.
  • Chapter 11

    NON-DISJUNCTION AS PROOF OF CHROMOSOMAL THEORY Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The mechanism by which an individual's cells might come to have an extra chromosome was already familiar to cell biologists. Working with fruit flies in 1913, Calvin B. Bridges, of Columbia University had demonstrated a failure, called non-disjunction, in the normal process of segregation at meiosis. In addition to three pairs of somatic chromosomes, the female fruit fly has a pair of X chromosomes (the male has an X and a Y chromosome). Normal meiosis in the female produces an ovum with a single X chromosome; normal meiosis in the male, a sperm with an X or a Y chromosome. On rare occasions, Bridges found, the two X chromosomes of a female germ cell fail to "disjoin" in the first stage of meiosis. One of the ova produced by the next division accordingly receives both X chromosomes. Subsequent fertilization by a normal Y-bearing sperm gives rise to an exceptional fly, female in appearance but with a chromosome complement of XXY.
  • Chapter 12

    LINKAGE AND MAPPING GENE IN PRO AND EUKARYOTES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The frequency of crossing over, thus appears to be closely related to physical distance between genes. When one knows all the genes, linkage groups and number of linkage groups of a species, it becomes possible for him that by adopting the crossing over as a tool he may determine the relative distance between the genes in a linkage group and also their order and may give diagrammatic representation of chromosomes showing the gene as points separated by distances proportional to the amount of crossing over. Such a diagrammatic, graphical representation of relative distance between linked genes of a chromosome is called linkage or genetic map.
  • Chapter 13

    INTERFERENCE AND COINCIDENCE IN PRO AND EUKARYOTES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In most higher organisms it has been found that one chiasma formation reduces the probability of mother chiasma formation in an immediately adjacent region of the chromosome, probably because of physical inability of the chromatids to bend back upon themselves within certain minimum distances. The tendency of one cross-over to interfere with the other cross-over is called interference. Thus, the proximity of one cross-over to another decreases the probability of another very close by. The centromere has a similar interference effect; frequency of crossing over is also reduced near the ends of the chromosome arms. The net result of this interference is the observation of fewer double cross-over types than would be expected according to map distances. The strength of interference varies in different segments of the chromosome and is usually expressed in terms of a coefficient of coincidence, or the ratio between the observed and the expected double cross-overs.
  • Chapter 14

    HEREDITARY DEFECT— KLINEFELTER, TURNER, CRI-DU-CHAT AND DOWN'S SYNDROME Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In humans, additions and deletions of chromosomes particularly the large chromosomes almost always result in lethals. Some new borns with extra chromosomes of the smaller groups such as G (Example, chromosome 21) survive but show multiple physical and mental abnormalities.
  • Chapter 15

    STRUCTURE OF PROKARYOTIC GENE, PROKARYOTIC TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION (LAC, HIS, TRP, CATABOLIC REPRESSION) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Gene is defined as a unit of hereditary material located on a chromosome that, by itself or with other genes determines a characteristic in an organism. Genes may exist in a number of forms, termed as alleles. Genes are the hereditary units which are transmitted from one generation to next generation. The term gene was coined by Johannsen. Watson gave various definitions for gene as follows: —as a fragment of gene —as a complete protein —as a heredity and variation. The exact definition for gene is a discrete region of self-replicating molecule i.e., chromosome which is responsible for specific cellular production. Watson gave units of gene as follows: Recon—the smallest unit of gene for transcription and translation. Muton—the unit of gene for mutation. Cistron—the functional unit of gene for transcription and translation. Cistron is a unit, element of which exhibits cistrons phenomenon. Cistron is not a synonym for gene and it is difficult to use this term in practice. At the intragenic level, with the help of recombination studies, micromaps have been prepared for different genes in the same fashion as chromosome maps for different chromosomes were initially prepared at the intergenic level.
  • Chapter 16

    STRUCTURE OF EUKARYOTIC GENE, EUKARYOTIC TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION AND GENE EXPRESSION, TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Eukaryotes The living cells are differentiated into two kinds viz prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are advanced and are basically those cells which have genetic material i.e., DNA enclosed by membrane to form a nucleus. Structure of Eukaryotic Genes Gene is a unit of hereditary material, located on a chromosome that by itself or with other genes, determines a characteristic in an organism. These are simply defined as smallest hereditary unit, capable either for recombination or of mutation or of controlling a specific function. In the classical sense, each gene corresponds to that part of DNA molecule, which, if active in a cell, codes for one functional polypeptide chain. Benzer coined the term cistron for this unit of hereditary function. In the light of Benzer’s assertion, a gene may be defined as “distinct chromosomal region responsible for a single cellular function and consisting of a linear array of potentially mutable units between which recombination can occur.”
  • Chapter 17

    ONE GENE-ONE ENZYME HYPOTHESIS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Archibald E. Garrod (1909), the English Physician-Biochemist was the first to establish a relation between genes and enzymes. When mutations occur in genes, they result in the production of defective or inactive enzyme. This causes “inborn errors in metabolism” e.g., alkaptonuria and phenylketonuria, in humans. The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis was then proposed by Beadle and Tatum. They proposed that single gene controls the synthesis of one enzyme, derived while working on Neurospora crassa (an omycetous fungus). The wild varieties of Neurospora can grow on minimal medium i.e., the medium containing inorganic salts, a simple sugar and vitamin biotin. This means that wild varieties of Neurospora can synthesize all other essential metabolities viz purines, pyrimidines, amino acids and other vitamins.
  • Chapter 18

    DNA RECOMBINATION: MOLECULAR MECHANISM IN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC ORGANISMS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    During the last three decades, techniques for manipulating eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic DNA have witnessed a remarkable development. There are at least three main phases of the development of these techniques, which include the following: (i) Recombinant DNA and gene cloning (development in 1970s). (ii) Polymerase chain reaction or PCR (developed in 1980s). (iii) DNA chips and microarrays (developed in 1990s).
  • Chapter 19

    GENE EXPRESSION IN YEAST Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    All genes have to be expressed in order to function. The first step in expression is transcription of the gene into a complementary RNA strand. For some genes—for example, those coding for transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA molecules—the transcript itself is the functionally important molecule. For other genes, the transcript is translated into a protein molecule. To understand how a gene is expressed, the RNA transcription must be studied. In particular, the molecular biologist will want to know whether the transcript is a faithful copy of the gene, or whether segments of the gene are missing from the transcription (Fig. 19.1(b)). These missing pieces are called introns which considerable interest centres on their structure and performed all possible functions. In addition to introns, the exact locations of the start and end points of transcription are important.
  • Chapter 20

    GENE EXPRESSION IN PROTOZOAN PARASITES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    As Leishmania cycle between the distinct environments provided by the insect vector and mammalian host, they differentiate into morphologically and biochemically distinct stages adapted for survival in the appropriate host. The remarkable ability of Leishmania to thrive in the vastly different environments encountered during its lifecycle is clearly the sign of a sophisticated genetic programme of work. The mechanisms used by these parasites to accomplish stage-specific gene regulation are central to the pathogenicity of Leishmania. One of the laboratory’s research interests is to understand at the molecular level how gene expression is regulated during the life cycle of Leishmania.
  • Chapter 21

    GENE ORGANIZATION AND EXPRESSION IN MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLAST Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mitochondria are conspicuous, hollow, sac like cell organelles found in all eukaryotic cells except mature red blood corpuscles (RBCs) of mammals. It was firstly observed by Kallikar. Altman named it as bioblasts and Benda called it Mitochondria. Structurally, it consists of a fluid filled cavity surroundings not by, a single but by two trilaminar unit membranes—an outer limiting membrane and thicker inner membrane. Outer membrane is smooth and straight. Inner membrane is infolded into cavity forming number of simple/branched plate like septa or tubular ridges, both called cristae. The part of inner membrane covering the cristae bears numerous, regularly spaced, minute, club shaped particles projecting into mitochondrial cavity. These particles are called elementary or f0f1-particles. Each particle has three distinct parts—a base piece, embedded in the membrane, a projecting stalk or pedicel and a knob like head at the tip of stalk.
  • Chapter 22

    BASIC MICROBIAL GENETICS, CONJUGATION, TRANSDUCTION AND TRANSFORMATION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Genetic material can be transferred between bacteria by three processes. In each case: (1) Transfer is unidirectional; (2) There is no true zygote; (3) The cells are essentially always haploid. Thus, the genetic transfer processes are different from those in eukaryotes.
  • Chapter 23

    INSERTION ELEMENTS AND TRANSPOSONS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    PROKARYOTIC TRANSPOSABLE GENETIC ELEMENTS There are four types of transposable genetic elements in prokaryotes—insertion sequence (IS) elements, transposons (In), plasmids and certain temperature bacteriophages. In this chapter, we will discuss about its insertion elements and transposons.
  • Chapter 24

    MITOCHONDRIAL AND CHLOROPLAST GENETIC SYSTEM Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mitochondria (Gr. mito - thread, chondrion = granule) are filamentous or granular cytoplasmic organelles of all aerobic cells of higher animals and plants and also of certain microorganism including algae, protozoa and fungi. They are found in all eukaryotic cells except RBCs of mammals. The mitochondrion was first discovered by Kolliker in 1850 as granular structure in the striated muscles.
  • Chapter 25

    EXTRA CHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Genes of the nuclear chromosomes play different roles in inheritance, development, mutation and cellular metabolism of the organism in which they occur. Though the genes of nuclear chromosomes have a significant role in inheritance of almost all traits from generations to generations, but they altogether cannot be considered as the rose vehicle of inheritance, because certain experimental evidences suggest the occurrence of certain entranuclear genes or DNA molecules in the cytoplasm of many prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  • Chapter 26

    POST TRANSLATION REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Post translational control involves the enzymic modification of a protein that alters its activity. Examples are common among eukaryotes. Some eukaryotic enzymes are synthesized as inactive proenzymes that become activated, when required, by proteases that cleave them at specific sites. The activity of many other eukaryotic proteins is altered by the action of protein kinases that catalyse the transfer of a g phosphate group from ATP to the protein.
  • Chapter 27

    DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    As we know every organism originates from a single cell called zygote. The genetic constitution of the zygote only specifies the potential for the organism to develop and function. Many things can influence gene expression as the organism develops and differentiates, and one such influence is the organism’s environment.
  • Chapter 28

    POPULATION GENETICS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The science of genetics can be mainly categorised into three main categories; these are: Transmission genetics (also called classical genetics), molecular genetics and popular genetics. Each of the three disciplines focuses on a different aspect of heredity. For instance. Transmission genetics is primarily concerned with genetic processes that occur within individuals, and with the help of this branch we come to know that how genes are passed from one individual to another.
  • Chapter 29

    MUTATIONS— SPONTANEOUS AND INDUCED Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The term mutation refers both to the change in the genetic material and to the process by which the change occurs. Mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation, it provides the raw material for evolution. Spontaneous mutations are those that occur without a known cause. This class of mutation may result from errors in DNA replication or they may actually be caused by mutagenic agents present in environment. Spontaneous mutation occurs infrequently, although the observed frequencies vary from gene to gene and from organism to organism.
  • Chapter 30

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MUTAGENS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Muller’s discovery of the mutagenic effect of irradiation provided a method for the induction of large numbers of mutations with a minimal amount of efforts. However, because of the large number of effort effects of radiation on living tissues, both primary and secondary studies on radiation—induced mutation provided little information about the molecular details of mutation processes. Subsequent discoveries of the mutagenic effects of a large variety of chemicals, many with very specific effects on DNA, provided the tools needed to work out many of the details of mutation processes at the molecular level. Hundreds of chemicals are known to have from slight to very large mutagenic effects.
  • Chapter 31

    INDUCED MUTATIONS IN MICROBES AND ANIMALS FOR ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF MAN Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Microbes are one of the most important partners in our life. Their presence is felt by human beings. Hence one cannot forget the gifts which have been given by these organisms to this world. The beneficial contribution of the micro-organisms to the world
  • Chapter 32

    ISOLATION OF AUXOTROPHS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In order to study microbial mutants, one must be able to detect them readily, even when there are few, and then efficiently isolate them from the parent organism and other mutants. Some techniques used in mutant detection, selection and isolation.
  • Chapter 33

    REPLICA PLATING TECHNIQUE Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In the 1940s, George Beadle and Edward L. Tatum set out to determine the nature of the products specified by genes. For their study, they used the pink bread mold Neurospora crassa. They recovered the auxotrophs at the cost of substantial labour. They analyzed about 2000 ascospores to recover the three vitamin-requiring mutants, all of the transfers being done one at a time. Current technology facilitates the recovery of auxotrophs in fungi; such as Neurospora and yeast, and in bacteria. One of the technique Replica Plating.
  • Chapter 34

    ANALYSIS OF MUTATION IN BIOCHEMICAL PATHWAY Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    HIGH RESOLUTION DISSECTION OF BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES VIA MUTATION ANALYSIS Mutations have been used extensively to elucidate the pathways by which biological processes occur. Metabolism occurs via sequences of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. By isolating and studying mutations in the genes coding for the enzymes involved, the sequence of steps in a pathway can often be determined. Morphogenesis frequently involves the sequential addition of proteins in the formation of specific three dimensional structures. Again, the sequence of protein additions can often be determined by isolating and studying mutant organisms with mutation in the genes coding for the proteins involved, Because an appropriate mutation will eliminate the activity of a single polypeptide, mutation provide an extremely powerful probe with which to dissect biological processes.

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