Angst or anguish is a Germanic word for fear or anxiety. Heidegger's Sein und Zeit could be rendered as Anxiety, uneasiness or malaise suggesting our daily anxieties. For Kierkegaard Angst meant dread while for Sartre anguish. However, the word Angst does not have the same meaning for every existentialist writer (Macquarrie 164-5). Kierkegaard's Angst (dread) describes an innate spiritual state of insecurity and despair centering on his conception of original sin. According to him, "anxiety is a qualification of dreaming spirit, and as such it has its place in psychology. In anxiety it (innocence) is related to the forbidden and to the punishment. Innocence is not guilty, yet there is anxiety as though it were lost" ( Kierkegaard 41- 5). The concept of anxiety further draws our attention to the origin and meaning of evil and temptation to sin. Virgilius Haufniensis's interpretation throws further light on it. In his view the origin of sinfulness is sheer possibility as it is neither 'absolute necessity' or 'arbitrary wilfulness.' 'Anxiety or apprehensiveness is an innocent sense of oneself as possibility rather than actuality.' (Chamberlain 178). The concept of dread is further analysed by Friedman in his interpretation of Kierkegaard: as he rightly remarks, "Dread is the dizziness of freedom which occurs when the spirit would posit the synthesis, and freedom then gazes down into its own possibility, grasping at finiteness to sustain itself. In this dizziness freedom succumbs." (Friedman 369). Hope, on the other hand, is at the very core of every religion with its transforming role: Christians hope in the second coming of Christ; Vaishnava Hindus await in hope of another avatar of Vishnu; Jews hope in the messiah; Islam speaks of a hidden imam (leader or exemplar); Buddhists refer to Maitreya as the Buddha to come.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-5138-051-1
  • Chapter 1

    Familial degeneration in vijay tendulkar's gidhade (the vultures) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Vulture is a bird that feeds on corpses and has come to symbolize anyone or anything that benefits from another's sufferings. Vijay Tendulkar has very aptly entitled his play to portray familial degradation and man's savage nature when avarice can lead to tearing one another, breaking even blood ties. Gidhade (The Vultures 1971) has a singular place among Vijay Tendulkar's (1928-2008) oeuvre of literary output spanning over fifty years. This paper attempts to explore how avarice degrades humans to become like vultures in their excessive craving for wealth. Avarice, derived from Latin avarus, is the inordinate love for riches. Its special malice lies in that it makes the getting and keeping of money, possessions, and the like, a purpose in itself to live for. It does not see that these things are valuable only as instruments for the conduct of a rational and harmonious life, due regard being paid of course to the special social condition in which one is placed. It is called a capital vice because it has as its object that for the gaining or holding of which many other sins are committed ("Avarice." www.newadvent.org). Tendulkar has portrayed what he has observed in life and has spoken in plain truth about the consequences of excessive avarice. He has said, "I have not written about hypothetical pain or created an imaginary world of sorrow. I am from a middle class family and I have seen the brutal ways of life by keeping my eyes open. My work has come from within me, as an outcome of my observation of the world in which I live. If they want to entertain and make merry, fine go ahead, but I can't do it, I have to speak the truth" (Sumit. passionforcinema.com).
  • Chapter 2

    Exploitation of women in vijay tendulkar's kamala Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Though Vijay Tendulkar (1928-2008) wrote in Marathi, his plays have been translated into English and other languages, and have been performed the world over. Known also as a social activist, he has dwelt on social themes. The present study is on Kamala, a victim of sexual exploitation. The story is based on investigation into flesh trade by Indian Express correspondent Ashwini Sarin in 1981. His extensive research led to his purchasing a woman named Kamala from a village in M.P. for ` 2,300/-. He then wrote a series of articles which were published in the issue of 27th April, 1981 entitled "Buying girls from circuit house." It read: "Yesterday, I bought a short-statured skinny woman belonging to a village near Shivapuri in Madhya Pradesh for ` 2,300/-. Even I find it hard to believe that I have returned to the Capital this morning buying this middle aged woman for half the price one pays for a buffalo in Punjab" (Sarin, Ashwini. http://www.indiankanoon.org). Though the story of Kamala exposes flesh trade, it also pinpoints how a male dominated society treats women under patriarchal hegemony.
  • Chapter 3

    Assessing relationships in mahesh dattani's where there is a will Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mahesh Dattani (1958 -) made his entry into Indian theatre with his first full length play "Where There's a Will" in 1986, drawing attention on intricacies of relationships under patriarchal hegemony. A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority ("Patriarchy.htm"). Patriarchy is the 'rule of the father'. Within feminism it refers to 'male domination' in a general sense (Macey 291). Under patriarchy, if a man whose father (and whose father's father, etc.) has died, has two married sons and two married daughters and 15 grandchildren, then any money earned by either of his two sons belongs, not to the individual who earns the money, but to the family, and he, as patriarch of the family, has authority to decide how the money is to be distributed among the family members. He doesn't have similar authority over his married daughters, who are under the authority of the patriarchs of the families into which they have married ("Patriarchy.htm"). According to Allan G. Johnson patriarchal social structures are: 1) Male dominated— which doesn't mean that all men are powerful or all women are powerless — only that the most powerful roles in most sectors of society are held predominantly by men, and the least powerful roles are held predominantly by women 2)Organized around an obsession with control, with men elevated in the social structure because of their presumed ability to exert control whether rationally or through violence or the threat of violence. 3) Male identified: aspects of society and personal attributes that are highly valued are associated with men, while devalued attributes and social activities are associated with women.There is a sense of threat to the social structure of patriarchies
  • Chapter 4

    Mahesh dattani's thirty days in september: a saga of child sexual abuse Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mahesh Dattani's (1958 - ) social concern has impelled him to probe deeply into the taboo issue of child sexual abuse in "Thirty Days in September", which is a saga of incest, betrayal and demonic subjugation in the name of blood relationship. The sex maniac turns out to be Mala's own maternal uncle, who also has secret incestuous relationship with her mother. The traumatic experience embedded into her subconscious, leads Mala to live her life determined to take revenge on any man crossing her path. The love game she plays lasts only for thirty days with every man she jilts. Her mother Shanta can only watch silently, suppressing her own muted self, as her daughter tortures herself narcissistically. Dattani brings in a male character, Deepak, to expose the evil perpetrated by male chauvinism. My endeavour in this paper is to trace the traumatic memories of Mala and her mother, coping with betrayal trauma. Betrayal trauma occurs when the people or institutions we depend on for survival violate us in some way such as childhood physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. The core issue is betrayal — a betrayal of trust that produces conflict between external reality and a necessary system of social dependence. Of course, a particular event may be simultaneously a betrayal trauma and life threatening. Rape is such an event. Perhaps most childhood traumas are such events. The psychic pain involved in detecting betrayal, is an evolved, adaptive, motivator for changing social alliances (Freyd 2008).
  • Chapter 5

    Dynamics of corruption in satish alekar's pidhijat (dynasts) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Satish Alekar (1949 - ) has contributed substantially to Indian theatre with his absurdist presentation of plays with black humour, satire and circuitous depiction of reality. He is known for his Mahanirvan (The Dread Departure), Mahapoor (Deluge), Atirekee (The Terrorist), Pidhijat (Dynasts), Begum Barv, and Mickey and Memsahib. He has mingled colloquialism and traditional theatrical practices of Maharashtra. Alekar has been influenced by playwright Diwakar (Shankar Kashinath Garge (1889-1931)) who employed Natyachhata (dramatic monologues) to project issues of social customs, women, politics, colonial bureaucracy, using dark comedy and cynicism (Alekar 410). Pidhijat (Dynasts) written in 2003, is a superb satire on rampant corruption perpe- trated by political parties in the country. The play is a mingling of realism with absurd mode of expression. The dialogues between wife and lover, father and son, son and grandfather, wife and grandfather, father and grandfather are unique in presenting the central issue at discussion namely, corruption. There is a total disregard for moral principles as characters live compromised lives.
  • Chapter 6

    Sexual oppression in satish alekar's mickey and the memsahib Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Excelling in depicting absurdities of life, mingling black humour and satire, Satish Alekar (1949 - ) has been acknowledged as a major force in the Indian theatre. Coming under the influence of the dramatist Diwakar (Shankar Kashinath Garge (1889-1931) who employed Natyachhata (dramatic monologues) to project issues of social customs, women, politics, colonial bureaucracy, using dark comedy and cynicism, Alekar has successfully mingled colloquialism and traditional theatrical practices of Maharashtra (Alekar 410). Mickey and Memsahib (1973) throws light on the irony of life that a hen-pecked professor who lives under his young and beautiful wife, depicting sexual oppression. The play is a mingling of realism with absurd mode of expression shown in the strange relationship between the professor and his wife. Alekar has very adroitly brought together several sequences in Mickey and the Memsahib to bring out very powerfully the stream of consciousness of the protagonist who undergoes mental and physical conflicts in his relationship with his wife. Though, disconnected, in thought and feeling depicting absurd situations, the play delves deeply into various areas in a suppressed self. The title of the play is highly symbolic as the Professor is divided in his experiments with the mouse as well as his relationship with his wife. His experiments on Mickey is with a great ambitious plan of making breakthrough in Molecular Biology, aiming even at the Nobel prize. But his antagonist turns out to be his own wife who wrecks all his plans. There is a continuous conflict of interests between the husband and wife. She continues to blackmail him into total submission. It all began with their strange marriage of convenience after he had an affair with her, while she was his PhD scholar, leading to sexual oppression. Could this be interpreted in the light of penis jealousy as propounded by Freud as they are also issueless in their marital life?
  • Chapter 7

    Living in absurdity in mahesh elkunchwar's garbo Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    As a dramatist, Mahesh Elkunchwar (1939 -) has been successful in portraying human predicament in the face of death, loneliness and illusions of all kinds, leading to apparent purposelessness of choice as the ultimate goal of life remaining unknown (Lal 120). He writes like the absurdists for whom reality being meaningless, there is no God and man's life is reduced to a mere circular progress from nothing to nothing. The true field of battle is inside us, in the unconscious. Hence, the theatre of the absurd attacks us below the threshold of consciousness using mainly visual devices and language in a state of fragmentation. They mainly concern themselves with the doomed individual, the man in despair and distress, alone and bitter in the wide world. The absurdists abandoned the concept of character and motivation, and concentrated on the states of mind and human situations. We do not find in them development of a plot from exposition to solution. They confront the audience with harsh facts of isolated life in an alien world. Elkunchwar seems to write Garbo adopting many of the techniques from the theatre of the absurd in the tradition of Harold Pinter, Edward Albee, John Osborne and others.
  • Chapter 8

    Mahesh elkunchwar's reflection: a study in loss of identity Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mahesh Elkunchwar (1939 - ) presents a wide range of dramatic situations, theatrical devices, and speech rhythms in his plays which portray preoccupation with death, loneliness, creativity, the illusion of wealth, and the apparent purposelessness of choice or action while the ultimate goal of life remained unknown ("Mahesh Elkunchwar." http://www.indianetzone.com). As a dramatist, he has been successful in portraying human predicament in the face of death, loneliness and illusions of all kinds, leading to apparent purposelessness of choice as the ultimate goal of life remaining unknown (Lal 120). He writes like the absurdists for whom reality being meaningless, there is no God and man's life is reduced to a mere circular progress from nothing to nothing. The true field of battle is inside us, in the Unconscious. The absurdists have no story or plot, no recognizable characters, no proper theme with a beginning and end. They reflect dreams and nightmares with incoherent babbling (Esslin 21-22). The playwright presents characters who are migrants to the metropolis "brought together by chance, rootless, with rootlessness as their only bond" (qtd Bandyopadhyay xi).
  • Chapter 9

    Girish karnad's wedding album: an overview Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Girish Karnad (1938 - ) has powerfully portrayed socio-cultural, mythical and historical themes in his oeuvre of plays such as Yayati (1961), Hayavadana (1971), Ma Nishada (1964), Tughlaq (1964), Nagamandala (1990), Tale-danda (1993), The Fire and the Rain (1998), The Dreams of Tipu Sultan (2000), Bali: The Sacrifice (2004), A Heap of Broken Images (2004), Flowers: A Dramatic Monologue (2005) and Wedding Album (2009). His plays have been universal in appeal with "efficacy and entertainment to urge a socio-cultural interrogation" (Mukherjee 22).
  • Chapter 10

    Social realism in sriranga's agnisakshi Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Kannada playwright, Sriranga (Adya Rangacharya 1904-1984), being a bitter critic of the hypocrisies of his society, has been realistically portraying social maladies through his plays. Dealing with a variety of themes and employing various techniques, he has exposed social evils satirically and comically. His major subjects include the independence movement, Gandhi's influence, disintegration of the joint family, religious hypocrisy, untouchability, poverty, exploitation, unemployment and extramarital relationships (Lal 2009: 383-4). He has been noted for the "timelessness of the plays, the universality of his charactersand his deep understanding of human nature and the theatre" (Desai 2004: 15). His contribution to theatre made Girish Karnard acknowledge him as the first Kannada playwright who "mercilessly flayed social pretensions and created a language which younger playwrights could use" (8). Being a Gandhian he had his perception of political freedom calling for social change, leading to economic prosperity of India. His ideals called for a societal transformation discarding caste and religious fundamentalism. His experiments with themes and techniques, with deeper analysis of human psychology, makes his apparently traditional dramatic form, an excellent channel of social criticism. Bharata's 'Natyashastra' in Sanskrit discusses ancient stage craft and various aspects of drama and it mirrored the essential and eternal India (Reddy, K 8). It is meant to entertain as well as to instruct and enlighten. It has given to Indian drama its form, objective and position in the social and cultural life of the people (Banker 37). The classical dramas were based on the epics and the Puranas. In course of time these declined to give way to folk theatre in many linguistic regions of India. Thus dramas began to be written in the vernaculars, some of which were translated into English in the past few years. In these translations there can be found a link between the east and the west, north and south, with Hindi, Marathi, Bengali and Kannada (Reddy, K 25). Many of these dramatists have attempted to retrieve ancient traditions by trans-historical inter- culturalism (Reddy, P 35).
  • Chapter 11

    Nurturing the bitter past in c.g. pai's playing at trains Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Malayalam playwright C.G. Pai in his "Playing at Trains" delves into a young man's struggle to establish his identity due to his confrontation with his Gandhian father. Being rejected by his father for his independent thinking and attitude, the young Subbu seeks employment opportunity in the Middle-east, to stand on his own feet. The play is also a reflection of life in the Middle-east coupled with nostalgia for home despite the protagonist nurturing a bitter past. It may be noted that there is a huge population of Indians in the Middle-east, that moved to the Gulf after the oil boom to work as labourers and for clerical jobs. However, a significant minority are either employed in the highest echelons of major banks and corporations or have prospered greatly through conducting business in the region. One of the major reasons Indians still like to work in the Gulf is because of the tax-free income it provides and its proximity to India ("Indians in Middle-east." http://www. indianaction.org).
  • Chapter 12

    Ecophilosophy in kikkeri narayana's wild fowl and a pair of peacocks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Considering "The World as Sanctuary," eco-philosophy sees humanity as one with nature, carrying the universe onward from inanimate matter of life, to consciousness, and ultimately to the Divine. This new worldview emphasizes the unique precious and sacred nature of our planet. The five key tenets of eco-philosophy are: 1) The world is a sanctuary. 2) Reverence for life in our guiding value. 3) Frugality is a precondition for inner happiness. 4) spirituality and rationality do not exclude each other, but complement each other. 5) In order to heal the planet, we must heal ourselves (Skolimowski, home.cogeco.ca). It is Arne Naess who defined eco-philosophy as "a philosophy of ecological harmony or equilibrium. A philosophy as a kind of sofia (or) wisdom, is openly normative, it contains both norms, rules, postulates, value priority announcements and hypotheses concerning the state of affairs in our universe" (qtd. Drengson & Y. Inoue 8). Hence, in the realm of ideology we can speak of the need for Ecological Humanism which points towards social relationships based on the idea of sharing, and stewardship. It sees the world as a sanctuary in which we temporarily dwell, and of which we must take the utmost care. It speaks of human life having a transcendent dimension, with its eschatology, concerned with the ultimate end and meaning of life. Ecological humanism calls for ecological spirituality that takes the cosmos to its creator (Skolimowski.home.cogeco.ca).
  • Chapter 13

    Weapons of destruction in himesh rattan's faisla kal hoga Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Himachali playwright, Himesh Rattan's "Faisla Kal Hoga" probes into the true weapons of destruction in a society that follows traditions of faiths devoid of the true spirit of humanity. It is entirely a play that is set in a court in session, where the public prosecutor produces a certain Rahim Pal Singh, who had been arrested for making arms and ammunitions. He is accused of making his home an arms factory. When the judge asks the accused who his lawyer is, he replies he has none. Presuming him to be a poor man unable to hire a lawyer, the judge offers to appoint one for him. The accused on the contrary wants to plead his own case.
  • Chapter 14

    Love and jealousy in sant singh sekhom's fate Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In "Fate," eminent Punjabi playwright Sant Singh Sekhom has attempted to portay how love and jealousy lead to fatal consequences, if not dealt with prudence. The play revolves around the passion of Man Singh, the ruler of Gangapur and the way his son Vijay Singh revolts and kills him. Rajeswari, the queen of Bhanpur who has escaped with her daughter Brajeswari is at the palace of Man Singh, when the Sultan captured her kingdom after slaying her husband. In his passion and lust, Man Singh, though in his forties, had his eyes on marrying the teenaged Brajeswari.
  • Chapter 15

    Hasmukh baradi's janardan-joseph: a study in manipulation Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In Janardan-Joseph, Gujarati playwright, Hasmukh Baradi, presents an absurd drama steeped in magic realism. It is the story of a scientist who is manipulated by his non- scientific managers. He is fated to suffer in their hands even after death when they call him to become a statue, erected in his memory. The story is a satire on human suffering. The hero of the play, Joseph the scientist has his alter-ego, Janardan the researcher. The duo portray the suffering of manipulated lives. Joseph's role is also played by Maharajshri, the story teller. Joseph's fiancée, Rekha plays the role as his personal assistant while the clerks play the role of a chorus. The play is written in ten units, in imitation of Indian scriptures.
  • Chapter 16

    Mingling of human and non-human elements in hrusikesh panda's god-demon Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Oriya writer, Hrusikesh Panda, has several plays, novels and short-story collections to his credit besides a few films he has produced. Popular for his socially relevant themes in his writings, Panda has dwelt on the marginalised and deprived people coping with the struggle of life. God-Demon is an absurd play in which there is a perfect mingling of human and the non-human worlds. The god-demon is associated with politicians, kings and queens, and intellectuals. The common man is represented by Gopalia who asks very relevant questions in a surreal world.
  • Chapter 17

    Arjun deo charan's jatra: an allegory Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Rajasthani playwright and poet Arjun Deo Charan in his play, "Jatra" makes a reflection on the various dimensions of humanism with personification of values, prompting man to keep alive the flames of humanism for survival. The play may be treated as a comedy of menace in the absurd theatre tradition, as the atmosphere is one of nervous tension, coupled with comical situations. The absurdists believe that reality is meaningless and senseless. Absurd theatre presents the absurdity of modern human condition and the humanity's loss of religious, philosophical, or cultural roots. The individual is essentially isolated and alone. It presents the existential outlook of man depicting him lonely, confused and often anguished in a bewildering universe ( Murfin 2).
  • Chapter 18

    Meera kant's nepathya raag in the wings: a study in male domination Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Meera Kant, Hindi fiction writer and playwright has very poignantly examined the age old male domination over women, through Khana's story. In the play, she mingles present with a past mythological story. The play opens in the home of Medha, a young working woman, who finds it extremely difficult working with her male colleagues in the office. She asks her mother is she experienced the same while she was a Government servant. The mother attempts her explanation of the problem of women being subjugated by a male dominated society in India, from times immemorial. She goes on to narrate the fate of Khana, a young and brilliant astrologer, in the fourth-fifth century Ujjaini during the reign of Emperor Chandragupta Vikramaditya. Khana, a village girl, being absorbed in the study of astronomy, becomes a disciple of the renowned astrologer, Vahara Mihir. Eventually, the scholar's son Prithuyashas marries her, being attracted by her beauty and charm. Becoming the daughter-in-law of the great Varaha Mihir, brought her recognition, as she was inducted into the company of the Navaratnas (nine jewels) of the court of the emperor. Vikramaditya, being captivated by the intellectual acumen of Khana, wanted to decorate her with membership of the august Royal Assembly. But his plan was thwarted by the Navaratnas who were determined to establish their male-domination in the intellectual circle. Even her father-in-law remained a silent spectator to the intellectual crime. The story goes that her tongue was cut off or she herself chopped off the tongue to protect her family and Varaha Mihir from ignominy. According to another version, Varaha Mihir himself cut her tongue off to maintain male domination. The story reveals how women are subjugated in a patriarchal society where they are denied intellectual articulation. Medha's mother brings to focus the issue of feminine subjugation which has been a tradition established from ancient times. Hence, the play establishes the belief that women continue to wait in the wings as was the case with Khana centuries ago.
  • Chapter 19

    D.p. sinha's the king of mathura: a megalomaniac's story Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    D.P. Sinha, the distinguished Hindi playwright in his short play "The King of Mathura" probes into the evil machinations of King Kans of Mathura. The play could be assessed in the absurd theatre tradition with its atmosphere of nervous tension, coupled with comical situations. The absurdists believe that reality is meaningless and senseless. Absurd theatre presents the absurdity of modern human condition and the humanity's loss of religious, philosophical, or cultural roots. The individual is essentially isolated and alone. It presents the existential outlook of man depicting him lonely, confused and often anguished in a bewildering universe (Murfin 2). Kans' victimization in the hands of his cruel father leads him to become cruel, jealous and intriguing. The sensitive boy who fell in love with a flute than a sword, becomes a demonic character, destroying and killing everyone who crossed him in his megalomaniac dreams.
  • Chapter 20

    Assessing t.p. sukumaran's lord ayanchery: a cucumber play Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    T.P. Sukumaran in "Lord Ayanchery" attempts a Cucumber Play which is an amateur theatre form once popular in North Malabar, now in North Kerala. It is a very simple theatre of alienation without any splendour. There is no makeup or light and sound effect. Men also play the roles of women. Being unsophisticated, the stage setting is a very simple. Being a theatre of alienation, a cucumber play often reminds the audience about what is going on in front of them. In such theatre there is a mingling of Jerzy Grotowski's Poor Theatre and Bertolt Brecht's Epic Theatre (Sukumaran 123).
  • Chapter 21

    Manoj mitra's the tale of hekim-shaheb Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Manoj Mitra (1938-), Bengali actor, director and dramatist is known for his popular plays such as "Chak Bhanga Modhu," "Sajano Bagan," "Rajdarshan," "Kinu Kaharer Thetar," "Alakanandar Putrakanya," "Darpane Sharatshashi" and "Galpo Hekimshaheb." His plays have been remarkable in depicting human alienation and the cruelty of powerful classes (Lal 270-1). Mitra has been very innovative in combining humour and pathos while depicting history, mythology, fantasy, and reality in his plays. Indian People's Theatre Association (IPTA) formed in 1943, stressing people's struggle for freedom, cultural progress and economic justice, had established its unit in Bengal propounding leftist views and ideals (Lal 162-3). In Bengal IPTA came to be Gana Natya which gave freshness to theatre, drawing the attention of the audience with its political message. Theatre became a movement against the established order of society involving problems of the common man. Theatre established close affinity with contemporary political, social, economic and cultural changes in Bengal. Gana Natya adhered to Marxist ideology and exposition of the class struggle leading to resistance and violence. It is in this context that Mitra's plays ought to be examined since his style emerges from a distinctive philosophy of being. Many of his plays belong to people's theatre and not-political theatre. From political theatre, he turned towards a theatre of conscience in "Chhayar Prashad," "Galpo Hekim-shaheb" and "Chak Bhanga Modhu", moving towards alternate frames of resistance and freedom from oppression (Mitra 1-4).
  • Chapter 22

    Appearance and reality in p. balachandran's poor usman Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Malayalam playwright P. Balachandran draws close attention to human predicament in the midst of extreme hardship in the form of a surrealist play in "Poor Usman." It could be assessed in the absurdist tradition depicting the absurdity of the modern human condition, depicting the lonely, confused, and often anguished individual in an utterly bewildering universe ("Absurdist tradition." http://theliterarylink.com). The playwright also employs magical realism in which the world appears just as ours in all respects but very extraordinary things happen. Most magical realism makes no attempt to explain such events as they simply happen, often with people reacting as if such things are not all that unusual ("Magical realism." http://writing2.richmond.edu). The writer mingles realistic treatment of the subject with supernatural and bizarre elements. There is excellent weaving of realism, fairy tales, myths and fantasy in the play.
  • Chapter 23

    K.s. sreenath's the stone idols: a play about a play Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Malayalam playwright and stage director, Sreenath, in "The Stone Idols" writes a play about a play, examining the intricacies of stage production, coordinating the various actors and technicians. The play calls attention to Bharata's 'Natyashastra' in which he propounds the rasa theory of drama and discusses ancient stage craft. The eight rasas (rhetorical sentiments) recognized in drama and dramatic representation are sringara (erotic), hasya (comic), karuna (pathetic), raudra (furious), vera (heroic), bhayanaka (terrible), bibhasta (odi- ous), and adbhuta (marvelous). Santa (peaceful) was added later (Lal 360). According to Bharata everything on stage occurs with reference to rasa, which means 'aesthetic content' of literary art and 'aesthetic relish' which the reader-spectator enjoys. Rasas arise from proper combination of vibhava (stimulants), anubhava (physical consequents) and vyabhicari bhava (transient emotional states) (Devy 5-6). The working of rasas
  • Chapter 24

    Assessing g.c. tongbra's taj mahal Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    G.C. Tongbra, the well-known Manipuri dramatist has written some very powerful plays exposing conflicts in the lives of people. He is known to have exposed the anomalous condition in society for man to become conscious of it and rectify the wrongs for a better life. His later existential position led him to centre his attention on man's need to free himself from bondages for a better life. The underdog in society needs to assert his identity and fulfil himself in a world of haves and have-nots. In their quest for identity, the underdogs need to challenge all impediments in the form of conventional morality, law and justice. Some of his popular plays include Lupa Sana (Silver and Gold) 1940; Judge Masabu Jailda (Jailing the Judge himself) 1940; Mani-Mamou (Mother-in-law and Daughter-in-law) 1945; Taj Mahal (1972); Ngabong Khao (The Flesh Trap) 1975; and Changyeng Manja (Experimental Husband) 1984. Taj Mahal has been very successful in presenting his strong views, attacking conventional morality and concepts of justice (Prakash 37).
  • Chapter 25

    Psycho-moral predicament in lakshmi narayan misra's vermillion on fire (sindoor ki holi) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Depicting social problems in his plays, Laxmi Narayan Mishra (1903-1987), the popular Hindi playwright and theatre personality from Uttar Pradesh, is known for his Sanyasi- 1930, Raksha ka Mandir-1931 (Temple of Demons), Mukti ka Rahasya-1932 (Secret of Freedom), Sindur ki Holi-1933 (Vermillion on Fire), Garuda Dhawaj-1945 (Flag with Garuda's Figure), Vatsaraj-1950, and Chakratyub-1953 (Chakra Formation). Popular for his drama of ideas like Ibsen and Bernard Shaw, in Vermillion on Fire, the dramatist brings out powerfully psycho-moral dilemma of the Indian society in the 1930s. The story surrounds a young man Rajnikant who is murdered by his uncle Bhagwant Singh, to take possession of his property. In his wicked deed, he is assisted by Harnandan Singh. They approach Murari Lal, Deputy Collector, incharge of the sub-division by offering bribe. His daughter Chandrakala falls in love with the boy and as the play ends becomes his widow. Murari Lal had his plan of getting his daughter married to Manoj Shankar whose father was killed under mysterious circumstances. Manorama, a young widow, has been in Murari Lal's residence to teach his daughter painting. He makes advances to her which she resists vehemently. The play revolves around psychological traumas and moral dilemmas innocent people undergo in a society that suffers under machinations of evil and corrupt men.
  • Chapter 26

    Breaking free from superstitions in balwant gargi's kuari tisi (the virgin peak) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Balwant Gargi, the noted Punjabi playwright in his symbolic poetic play "Kuari Tisi" ("The Virgin Peak"), examines emotional restlessness in the protagonist which is symbolic of the eternal desire for spiritual wholeness, breaking free from superstitions. Chandi, the heroine of "Kuari Tisi" (The Virgin Peak) is restless as she is confined to her home and wants to roam free from all shackles of life. A young man who appears on the scene with burning desire for her, takes her out into the world of freedom and love. The concept of the play is derived from the dramatist's own experience in love with a girl who once told him: "You love me. But it is of no use. You won't get anything from me." His response was: "There is no return or reward in love. When one tries to scale a high peak of the snow-clad mountain there is nothing on it. Often one loses one's life. But there is a strange thrill in it, and a compulsion" (108). Chandi becomes a product of the playwright's imagination, attributing to her the charm and beauty he found in his beloved who refused to respond to his love.
  • Chapter 27

    Identity crisis in arun sarma's the wolf man Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Assamese novelist and playwright, Arun Sarma has attempted to probe into the mystery of man as a social being in his "The Wolf Man." The play is unique in its effort to define the central character of the wolf man Romu. The story is woven around the capture of a wolf boy and his training to be a human being by Prof. Ashok Choudhury. The play opens at the laboratory of the eminent Professor Choudhury. He comes out to meet his friend Saikia, a forest officer whom the conservator of forests has sent to invite him to visit Ramsang forest in Assam to study about wolfmen there. Saikia reports that there is only a single family of wolfmen left at the present time, surrounded by a large number of wolves. "wolf men are human only. Theirs are human brains. They have intelligence" (Sarma 97). He found only a couple with a child so far as the rest of the families have disappeared, being attacked and torn into pieces by the attacking wolves. Their effort is to capture the child to research on them. Both the Professor and Saikia make their plans to visit the forest the following day.

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