Angst or anguish is a Germanic word for fear or anxiety. Heidegger's Sein und Zeit could be rendered as Anxiety, uneasiness or malaise suggesting our daily anxieties. For Kierkegaard Angst meant dread while for Sartre anguish. However, the word Angst does not have the same meaning for every existentialist writer (Macquarrie 164-5). Kierkegaard's Angst (dread) describes an innate spiritual state of insecurity and despair centering on his conception of original sin. According to him, "anxiety is a qualification of dreaming spirit, and as such it has its place in psychology. In anxiety it (innocence) is related to the forbidden and to the punishment. Innocence is not guilty, yet there is anxiety as though it were lost" (Kierkegaard 41-5). The concept of anxiety further draws our attention to the origin and meaning of evil and temptation to sin. Virgilius Haufniensis's interpretation throws further light on it. In his view the origin of sinfulness is sheer possibility as it is neither 'absolute necessity' or 'arbitrary wilfulness.' 'Anxiety or apprehensiveness is an innocent sense of oneself as possibility rather than actuality.' (Chamberlain 178). The concept of dread is further analysed by Friedman in his interpretation of Kierkegaard: as he rightly remarks, "Dread is the dizziness of freedom which occurs when the spirit would posit the synthesis, and freedom then gazes down into its own possibility, grasping at finiteness to sustain itself. In this dizziness freedom succumbs." (Friedman 369). Hope, on the other hand, is at the very core of every religion with its transforming role: Christian hope in the second coming of Christ; Vaishnava Hindus await in hope of another avatar of Vishnu; Jews hope in the Messiah; Islam speaks of a hidden imam (leader or exemplar); Buddhists refer to Maitreya as the Buddha to come.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-5138-050-4
  • Chapter 1

    Angst and hope in jhumpa lahiri's the lowland Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Shortlisted for Man Booker Prize 2013 and US National Book Award 2013 in fiction, Jhumpa Lahiri (1967-) has proven her uniqueness as a dominant diaspora writer depicting the complexities of human relationships in her The Lowland (2013). The novel is a well thought-out addition to her oeuvre of fiction writing, including Pulitzer Prize winner Interpreter of Maladies (1999) and The Namesake (2003). Unaccustomed Earth (2008) ("Jhumpa Lahiri"). The Lowland recounts the story of two inseparable brothers, Subhash and Udayan Mitra. However, the circumstances in the 1960s make them part ways in choice of life. Subhash who is intelligent and sober in character moves to US for higher studies in oceanography and settles there. His younger brother, Udayan, though becomes a school teacher, is led by Marxist ideology. He marries Gauri, but is shot dead by police for his involvement in terrorist activities. The story examines human predicaments in the lives of her characters, focusing on their sense of alienation and broken familial relationships. Being essentially autobiographical in her writing, Lahiri includes details from her Bengali community and personal experiences in her fiction. Portraying life of the Indian migrants to America, Lahiri has been very poignant in capturing the diasporic spirit of her characters muddled in multiple emotional tangles. Lahiri herself reveals what inspired her to write the story:
  • Chapter 2

    Jhumpa lahiri interpreting maladies in interpreter of maladies, the namesake and unaccustomed earth Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Jhumpa Lahiri (1967 - ) as a diaspora writer, deals with a multicultural society both from 'inside' and 'outside', seeking to find her native identity as well as the new identity in the adopted country. This brings in a clash of cultures and dislocation and displacement (Kadam 121-22). It is this predicament of people in diaspora that the fictionist attempts to analyse through her oeuvre of fiction writing consisting of Interpreter of Maladies (1999), The Namesake (2003) and Unaccustomed Earth (2008). She also dwells on 'acculturation' and 'contra-acculturation' which the second generation Indian-Americans experience (Majumdar 24). They are able to get accultured in the new country, embracing its socio-cultural values, at the same time experience a sense of nostalgia for the Indian culture and sensibilities, experiencing alienation and uprootedness. Such a feeling of in-betweeness experienced, the fictionist portrays through her characters. On her sense of exile Lahiri recounts: "I have somehow inherited a sense of exile from my parents, even though in many ways I am so much more American than they are I think that for immigrants, the challenges of exile, the loneliness, the constant sense of alienation, the knowledge of and longing for a lost world, are more explicit and distressing than for their children.... But it bothered me growing up, the feeling that there was no single place to which I fully belonged" (Houghton).
  • Chapter 3

    Slumdog millionaire: an appraisal of the fiction and the film Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Slumdog Millionaire directed by Danny Boyle has finally proved to be the best movie of 2008 bagging eight Oscars, adding to its haul of various other international awards including seven BAFTA (British Academy Film Awards) and four Golden Globe trophies. In the backdrop of global recession and gloom and doom, Slumdog Millionaire brings in hope and optimism. Danny Boyle, the jubilant director, regards the film having a universal theme ending not in prize money, but in love. The fairytale story of Mumbai is steeped in human emotions and humour surrounded by murder, thieving, extortion, communal conflict, prostitution, beggary and mafia rivalry. The film may well be studied from the subaltern perspective as the term denotes the entire people that is subordinate in terms of class, caste, age, gender and office (Sen 203). The fiction and the film reflect life in Dharavi, Asia's largest slum of about 520 acres, at the heart of Mumbai and populated by over a million people. It is known for its vibrancy with entrepreneurial activities that generate between US$50 to $100 million annually. The slum dwellers have also organized themselves into cooperative societies that provide basic facilities and protection to residents. "Dharavi is an economic success story that the world must pay attention to during these times of global depression. Dharavi's messy appearance is nothing but an expression of intense social and economic processes at work. Most homes double as work spaces: when morning comes, mattresses are folded, and tens of thousands of units form a decentralized production network rivaling the most ruthless of Chinese sweatshops in efficiency" (Echanove 2009).
  • Chapter 4

    Poor-rich divide in aravind adiga's the white tiger Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Aravind Adiga's (1974 - ) The White Tiger, which was awarded the Man Booker Prize in 2008, is singular in its fictionalized portrayal of the relationship between Balram Halwai and his master Mr Ashok. The story exposes the poor-rich divide that surrounds India in the backdrop of economic prosperity, in the wake of the IT revolution. As Michael Portillo commented the novel "shocked and entertained in equal measure" (Portillo). Written in the epistolary form, the novel is a seven-part letter to the Chinese Premier, Wen Jiabao, from Balram alias Ashok Sharma, a self-styled 'Thinking Man / And an Entrepreneur' (TWT 3). Balram the killer, metamorphoses into his master's replica after his heinous crime. By crime and cunning, in the name of the social injustice due to existing rich-poor divide in India, Balram rules his entrepreneurial world.
  • Chapter 5

    Subaltern predicament in the recent indian english fiction: a study of aravind adiga's the white tiger and vikram swarup's slumdog millionaire Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Subaltern concerns have been quite aptly portrayed in some of the recent Indian English fiction with reference to those groups that have been subordinated in manifold ways. This study focuses on the subaltern predicament in Aravind Adiga's (1974 - ) The White Tiger and Vikram Swarup's Slumdog Millionaire in the backdrop of the subaltern theory that purports—norms are established by those in power and imposed on the "Other" who has had no voice because of race, class, or gender. Aravind Adiga's The White Tiger is a powerful social commentary on injustice and class struggle in India. portrays the anti-hero Balram Halwai, who represents the subaltern section of society, juxtaposed against the rich. Adiga employs the metaphor of the Rooster Coop to examine the never-ending oppressive system under which the subaltern groups suffer. Slumdog Millionaire based on Vikas Swarup's novel Q & A and directed by Danny Boyle which bagged eight Oscars in 2009, presents slum-subaltern in the midst of murder, thieving, extortion, communal conflict, prostitution, beggary and mafia rivalry. Swarup's portrayal of his protagonist Jamal from a slum background, defines forcefully the concept of slum-subaltern. It is a case in point to prove that slums are no more a threat to growing global poverty, but an asset to economic growth if given strategic direction.
  • Chapter 6

    Probing relationships in jayanta mahapatra's selected short stories Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Though known for his great poetry replete with symbolism and imagery, Jayanta Mahapatra (1928 - ) as a writer is preoccupied with projecting cultural and human values. In an interview he is recorded to have said: "Write whatever you feel, feel from your heart, from your inside. One thing will also help you. Just you write from the level, tilt a little higher level. If we can go somewhat towards God in the guise of writing If we can that should be our goalYour conscience and soul search good things" ("Interview." http://retort.brentley.com). I am particularly attracted by his collection of short stories entitled The Green Gardener and Other Stories, that portray universal human predicaments. In this article I attempt a reading of four stories, viz. "Eyes," "Another Day," "Ringing Silence," and "Turn Left for Happiness," where the fictionist delves into intricacies of mutual relationships among couples - their doubts and fears, faithfulness and betrayals, and agony and ecstasy in love.
  • Chapter 7

    Betrayal and remorse in tania james' atlas of unknowns Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Born and raised in Kentucky, Tania James (1980 - ), daughter of immigrant parents from Kerala, traces the intricacies of familial relationships in the midst of betrayal and remorse in her debut novel Atlas of Unknowns. The immigrant experience she examines is unique as it revolves around two Syrian Christian sisters from Kerala, Anju and Linno. The sibling's rivalry takes them through betrayal, pain and agony as they travel across the two worlds of unknown destinies. Tania has been very frank in her email response to my query regarding her immigrant experience as a diasporic writer: "I think what drives my writing is an interest in character, and in the lives and voices of those characters, not all of whom are immigrants. But then again, the themes of dislocation and cultural dissonance which are often central to "immigrant" or "ethnic" novels—are pervasive in much of my work. Again this is not a conscious choice, but I'm sure my upbringing and experience (as a first- generation immigrant) have something to do with these obsessions" (Tania, Email to the author).
  • Chapter 8

    Insecurity and loneliness in marriage— assessing manju kapur's the immigrant Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    It is assumed that in most cases, after marriage the bond between the couples get strengthened in course of time, as they spend time in each other's company. There is greater and closer understanding of each one's feelings and needs. From love expressed in physical intimacy, they begin to grow in more and more of unconditional love. As a result there emerges deeper commitment, greater understanding, adapting to each other's sensibilities, and need for children. In the case of the protagonists in Manju Kapur's (1948 - ) The Immigrant, their love at first sight begins to dwindle after marriage. The only reason being, their physical expression of love does not culminate in an ecstatic consummation, due to Ananda's sexual dysfunction. The security of marriage is never realized in their lives. For Nina, the security of her marriage never fructified into an ideal spousal relationship ending her loneliness. On the other hand, Ananda makes use of the security of his marriage to enter into greater sexual explorations with white women for having felt humiliated in his manliness. An in depth analysis of the novel reveals how the writer has dwelt on insecurity and loneliness experienced by the protagonists. The novel opens introducing Nina and Ananda living their lonely lives before their marriage. At thirty, Nina, an English lecturer at Miranda House, lives a wasted spinster's life. Her friends and mother have been pestering her with marriage plans. As a student of MA in English, she had her first sexual relationship with her teacher Rahul. The love relationship was kept a secret from her mother who presumed her to be a virgin all the time. She was stung by Rahul betraying her when he refused to marry her. She felt "Like all cakeswas chewed, mashed into pulp and swallowed" (TI 6). She sunk into her loneliness like her own mother. "Both of them were fated to lead lives devoid
  • Chapter 9

    Metaphor in easterine kire's bitter wormwood Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Easterine Kire's (1959 - ) Bitter Wormwood is a novel that spans from the tumultuous period of the 1950s and 60s to the present day. Easterine sets the fictional narrative in perspective as she states: ... it is a book about the ordinary people whose lives were completely overturned by the freedom struggle. So I could say that it was the stories of the people and their untold suffering that inspired me to write this book. First, the community has the shared experience of fear and then that is followed by silence. In the case of the Indian occupation of the Naga Hills, the people experienced genocide, starvation, burning of villages, fields and granaries and torture. Their culture was devalued and their religious centres such as churches were desecrated. Caste was used as an oppressive instrument because the Indian soldiers came from a caste society whereas Nagas were casteless. In subsequent years, occupation led to the problem of surviving Nagas experiencing the psychological effects of self-hatred, alcoholism, depression, and self abuse and domestic abuse. Another psychological effect of the constant oppressive policies is victimhood on a very high level. I'd like people to know the truth, unadulterated and ugly though it may be at times. Not my version of the truth but an objective truth that people in their heart of hearts will have to agree with as true, even if it paints an unattractive picture
  • Chapter 10

    Love and conflict in easterine kire's life on hold Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The anonymous adage, "Sacrificing your happiness for the happiness of the one you love is by far the truest type of love," is central to the emotional relationship between the protagonists in Easterine Kire's (1959 - ) Life on Hold. The story surrounds the life of childhood friends Roko and Nime during the most critical years of insurgency in Nagaland during the 1980s. The opening of the novel referring to the children wrestling is central to the various movements in the story which is ultimately a continuous wrestling to establish relationships. "They tumbled over and over in the short grassy slope, sky and earth revolving round them until it was all just a whirr. Roko came to a stop first, and then Setuo and finally Nime. She usually wound up last" (Kire 1). As the story concludes, it is Nime who winds up her emotional life, kept on hold for about two decades. When Nime, Roko and Setuo were seven years old, it used to be a regular game among them to wrestle in the neighbouring woods. Since Setuo was bigger in size, the match used to be between Nime and Roko. Roko being very quick and agile used to dash the girl down most of the time. However, on some occasions she had the upper hand which made Roko fume with rage to push her down. Once it happened that she had downed him badly, making him very sullen and mum. Roko refused to talk to her while at school the following day. Setuo brought message to Nime that Roko wanted to wrestle with her that evening to patch up his ego problem. The message was clear : "I'll meet you two in the wood" (3). They met at the usual place in the wood where they wrestled. Roko had his belated revenge on her as she left with grass stains on her skirt, making her mother scold her for being with the boys all the time. She was reprimanded and told to behave like a girl.
  • Chapter 11

    Immortality through nature in temsula ao's laburnum for my head Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Padma Shree Temsula Ao (1945 - ), poet and fictionist from Northeast India, in her latest collection of short stories entitled Laburnum for My Head, examines various aspects of human condition in interpersonal relationships. In the title story of the collection, she examines how Lentina's longing to be buried beside a laburnum tree with its buttery yellow blossoms, instead of a headstone, is fulfilled. Her longing to be buried in the lap of nature draws attention to our innate desire to be immortalised through nature. It is a traditional practice in Christian graveyards, to erect "headstones" known also as memorial stones, gravestones or tombstones, made of granite, marble or other materials. These are erected vertically above the ground to keep the sacred memory of the departed soul. They also symbolize wealth and prominence of a person in society. Such stones are marked with epitaphs in praise of the deceased or quotations from religious texts, such as "requiescat in pace."

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