This book on "Applied Thermodynamics" has been written for the students preparing the subject for B.E. examinations of various Indian Universities, A.M.I.E. and competitive examinations. The book contains 11 chapters in all, and deals the subject matter exhaustively.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-81-318-0583-1
  • Chapter 1

    Properties of Steam and Steam Generators Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Definition of the pure substance. 2. Phase change of a pure substance. 3. p-T (pressure-temperature) diagram for a pure substance. 4. p-V-T (pressure-volume-temperature) surface. 5. Phase change terminology and definitions. 6. Property diagrams in common use. 7. Formation of steam. 8. Important terms relating to steam formation. 9. Thermodynamic properties of steam and steam tables. 10. External work done during evaporation. 11. Internal latent heat. 12. Internal energy of steam. 13. Entropy of water. 14. Entropy of evaporation. 15. Entropy of wet steam. 16. Entropy of superheated steam. 17. Enthalpy-entropy (h-s) chart or Mollier diagram. 18. Determination of dryness fraction of steam—Tank or bucket calorimeter—Throttling calorimeter—Separating and throttling calorimeter. 19. Introduction. 20. Classification of boilers. 21. Comparison between ‘fire-tube and water-tube’ boilers. 22. Selection of a boiler. 23. Essentials of a good steam boiler. 24. Boiler terms. 25. Fire tube boilers— Simple vertical boiler—Cochran boiler—Cornish boiler—Lancashire boiler— Locomotive boiler—Scotch boiler. 26. Water tube boilers—Babcock and Wilcox water-tube boiler—Stirling boiler. 27. High pressure boilers—Introduction—Unique features of the high pressure boilers—Advantages of high pressure boiles—LaMont boiler—Loeffler boiler—Benson boiler—Velox boiler—Super-critical boilers— Supercharged boiler. 28. Combustion equipment for steam boilers—General aspects—Burning of coal. 29. Introduction. 30. Boiler mountings—Water level indicator—Pressure gauge—Safety valves— High steam and low water safety valve—Fusible plug—Blow-off cock—Feed check valve—Junction or stop valve. 31. Accessories—Feed pumps—Injector—Economiser—Air preheater—Superheater—Steam separator—Steam trap. 32. Definition and classification of draught. 33. Natural draught—Chimney. 34. Chimney height and diameter. 35. Condition for maximum discharge through a chimney. 36. Efficiency of a chimney. 37. Draught losses. 38. Artificial draught—Forced draught—Induced draught—Balanced draught—Advantages of mechanical draught—Power required to drive fan— Steam jet draught——Worked Examples. 39. Evaporative capacity. 40. Equivalent evaporation. 41. Factor of evaporation. 42. Boiler efficiency. 43. Heat losses in a boiler plant—Work Examples— Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 2

    Basic Steam Power Cycles Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Carnot cycle. 2. Rankine cycle. 3. Modified Rankine cycle. 4. Regenerative cycle. 5. Reheat cycle. 6. Binary vapour cycle—Additional/Typical Worked Examples—Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 3

    Reciprocating Steam Engine Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. General aspects of heat engines. 2. Definition and classification of a reciprocating steam engine. 3. Steam engine parts and their description. 4. Working of a steam engine. 5. Steam engine terminology. 6. Hypothetical or theoretical indicator diagram. 7. Actual indicator diagram and diagram factor. 8. Methods of reducing condensation. 9. Mean effective pressure (m.e.p. or pm). 10. Engine indicators—Definition and uses—Type of indicators—Crosby pencil indicator. 11. Indicated power (I.P.). 12. Brake power (B.P.). 13. Efficiencies of steam engine. 14. Mass of steam in cylinder. 15. Saturation curve and missing quantity. 16. Governing of steam engines. 17. Valves. 18. Heat balance sheet. 19. Performance curves—Worked Examples—Additional/ Typical Examples—Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 4

    Compound Steam Engines Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Introduction. 2. Advantages of compound steam engines. 3. Classification of compound steam engines. 4. Multi-cylinder engines. 5. Estimation of cylinder dimensions (compound steam engines). 6. Causes of loss of thermal efficiency in compound steam engines. 7. The governing of compound steam engines. 8. Uniflow steam engine—Worked Examples—Additional/Typical Examples— Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 5

    Steam Nozzles Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Introduction. 2. Steam flow through nozzles—Velocity of steam—Discharge through the nozzle and conditions for its maximum value. 3. Nozzle efficiency. 4. Supersaturated or metastable expansion of steam in a nozzle. 5. General relationship between area, velocity and pressure in nozzle flow. 6. Steam injector—Worked examples—Highlights—Objective Type Questions— Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 6

    Steam Turbines Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Introduction. 2. Classification of steam turbines. 3. Advantages of steam turbine over the steam engines. 4. Description of common types of turbines. 5. Methods of reducing wheel or rotor speed. 6. Difference between impulse and reaction turbines. 7. Impulse turbines—Velocity diagram for moving blade—Work done on the blade—Blade velocity co-efficient—Expression for optimum value of the ratio of blade speed to steam speed (for maximum efficiency) for a single stage impulse turbine—Advantages of velocity compounded impulse turbine. 8. Reaction turbines— Velocity diagram for reaction turbine blade—Degree of reaction (Rd)—Condition for maximum efficiency. 9. Turbines efficiencies. 10. Types of power in steam turbine practice. 11. ‘‘State point locus’’ and ‘‘Reheat factor’’. 12. Reheating steam. 13. Bleeding. 14. Energy losses in steam turbines. 15. Steam turbine governing and control. 16. Special forms of steam turbines—Highlights— Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 7

    Steam Condensers Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Introduction. 2. Vacuum. 3. Organs of a steam condensing plant. 4. Classification of condensers— Jet condensers—Surface condensers—Reasons for inefficiency in surface condensers— Comparison between jet and surface condensers. 5. Sources of air in condensers. 6. Effects of air leakage in a condenser. 7. Methods for obtaining maximum vacuum in condensers. 8. Vacuum measurement. 9. Vacuum efficiency. 10. Condenser efficiency. 11. Dalton’s law of partial pressures. 12. Determination of mass of cooling water. 13. Heat transmission through walls of tubes of a surface condenser. 14. Air pumps. 15. Cooling towers—Worked Examples—Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 8

    Gas Power Cycles Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Definition of a cycle. 2. Air standard efficiency. 3. The Carnot cycle. 4. Constant Volume or Otto cycle. 5. Constant pressure or Diesel cycle. 6. Dual combustion cycle. 7. Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual combustion cycles—Efficiency versus compression ratio—For the same compression ratio and the same heat input—For constant maximum pressure and heat supplied. 8. Atkinson cycle. 9. Ericsson cycle. 10. Brayton cycle—Additional/Typical Examples— Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 9

    Internal Combustion Engines Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Heat engines. 2. Development of I.C. engines. 3. Classification of I.C. engines. 4. Applications of I.C. engines. 5. Basic idea of I.C. engines. 6. Different parts of I.C. engines. 7. Terms connected with I.C. engines. 8. Working cycles. 9. Indicator diagram. 10. Four-stroke cycle engines. 11. Two-stroke cycle engines. 12. Comparison of four-stroke and two-stroke cycle engines. 13. Comparison of spark ignition (S.I.) and combustion ignition (C.I.) engines. 14. Comparison between a petrol engine and a diesel engine. 15. How to tell a two-stroke cycle engine from a four-stroke cycle engine ? 16. Ignition system. 17. Fuel injection system. 18. Electronic fuel injection. 19. Cooling systems. 20. Lubrication systems. 21. Governing of I.C. engine. 22. Liquid fuels for reciprocating combustion engines. 23. Combustion phenomenon in S.I. engines. 24. Pre-ignition. 25. Detonation or ‘‘Pinking’’. 26. Factors affecting knock. 27. Performance number (PN). 28. Desirable characteristics of combustion chamber for S.I. engines. 29. Combustion chamber design—S.I. engines. 30. Octane number. 31. Turbulence in S.I. engines. 32. Combustion phenomenon in C.I. engines. 33. Delay period (or ignition lag) in C.I. engines. 34. Diesel knock. 35. Cetane number. 36. Basic designs of C.I. engine combustion chambers. 37. Supercharging. 38. Dissociation. 39. Performance of I.C. engines. 40. Engine performance curves. 41. The Wankel rotary combustion (RC) engine. 42. Stratified charge engines and duel-fuel engines—Worked Examples—Highlights— Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 10

    Air Compressors Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. General aspects. 2. Classification of air compressors. 3. Reciprocating compressors— Construction and working of a reciprocating compressor (single stage)—Single-stage compressor— equation for work (neglecting clearance)—Equation for work (with clearance volume)—Volumetric efficiency—Actual p-V diagram for single-stage compressor— Multistage compression—Efficiency of compressor—How to increase isothermal efficiency ?—Clearance in compressors—Effect of clearance volume—Free air delivered and displacement—Compressor performance—Effect of atmospheric conditions on the output of a compressor—Control of compressors—Arrangement of reciprocating compressors—Intercooler—Compressed air motors—Reciprocating air motor— Rotary type air motor. 4. Rotary compressors—Classification—Displacement compressors— Steady flow compressors. 5. Comparison between reciprocating and centrifugal compressors. 6. Comparison between reciprocating and rotary air compressors. 7. Comparison between centrifugal and axial flow compressors—Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 11

    Gas Turbines and Jet Propulsion Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Gas turbines—general aspects. 2. Classification of gas turbines. 3. Merits of gas turbines. 4. Constant pressure combustion gas turbines—Open cycle gas turbines—Methods for improvement of thermal efficiency of open cycle gas turbine plant—Effect of operating variables on thermal efficiency—Closed cycle gas turbine—Merits and demerits of closed cycle gas turbine over open cycle gas turbine. 5. Constant volume combustion turbines. 6. Uses of gas turbines. 7. Gas turbine fuels. 8. Jet propulsion—Turbo-jet—Turbo-prop—Ram-jet—Pulse-jet engine— Rocket engines—Highlights—Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 12

    Refrigeration Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Fundamentals of refrigeration—Introduction—Elements of refrigeration systems— Refrigeration systems—Co-efficient of performance (C.O.P.)—Standard rating of a refrigeration machine. 2. Air refrigeration system—Introduction—Reversed Carnot cycle—Reversed Brayton cycle—Merits and demerits of air refrigeration system. 3. Simple vapour compression system— Introduction—Simple vapour compression cycle—Functions of parts of a simple vapour compression system—Vapour compression cycle on temperature-entropy (T-s) diagram— Pressure-enthalpy (p-h) chart—Simple vapour compression cycle on p-h chart—Factors affecting the performance of a vapour compression system—Actual vapour compression cycle—Volumetric efficiency—Mathematical analysis of vapour compression refrigeration. 4. Vapour absorption system—Introduction—Simple vapour absorption system—Practical vapour absorption system—Comparison between vapour compression and vapour absorption systems. 5. Refrigerants—Classification of refrigerants—Desirable properties of an ideal refrigerant— Properties and uses of commonly used refrigerants—Highlights—Objective Type Questions— Theoretical Questions—Unsolved Examples.
  • Chapter 13

    Air-conditioning Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    1. Introduction. 2. Air-conditioning systems—Introduction—Air-conditioning cycle—Airconditioning systems. 3. Air-conditioning equipment, components and controls—Air-conditioning equipment—Air-conditioning components—Air-conditioning controls. 4. Air distribution— Definitions—Principles of air distribution—Air handling system—Room air distribution—Duct systems—Air distribution systems—Duct design methods—Leakage of air and maintenance of ducts. 5. Load estimation—Introduction—Cooling load estimate—Heating load estimate— Solar radiation—Solar heat gain through glass—Heat flow through building structures (Thermal Barriers)—Infiltration—Internal heat gains—System heat gains—Highlights— Objective Type Questions—Theoretical Questions.

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