This book is intended to serve as a textbook covering the syllabus of “Basic Mechanical Engineering” (Course code: BE-203) adopted by Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya (RGPV) Bhopal (MP). The second edition of this book attempts to cover the diverse topics of the syllabus in the best possible manner, without making the contents voluminous. Throughout the textbook, attempt has been made to present the subject matter in a simple, lucid and precise manner. Care has been taken in making the text student friendly with greater emphasis on the basic concepts of the subjects. I wish to express my profound thanks to all those who helped me in making this book a reality. Suggestions for the improvements of the book from the readers will be acknowledged and deeply appreciated.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • Chapter 1

    Engineering Materials Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Engineers from all disciplines should have some basic and applied knowledge of engineering materials so that they can do their work more efficiently while using them. Since ancient times, human civilization right from the beginning of stone age to iron and steel age and now to silicon age has seen the impact of these materials on the quality of human life. In all engineering disciplines, the desired performance of a component or structure depends on the right choice of a material. Mechanical engineers want light weight high strength and durable material for producing mechanical components such as connecting rods, cranks, etc. Aerospace engineers demand light weight, high strength and high temperature resistant materials like glass fiber reinforced materials. Electrical engineers demand good quality ceramic and insulating materials so that their switches can react quickly and insulators can withstand high temperatures efficiently. Civil engineers will naturally like to select those materials from which they can design and construct safe, reliable and corrosion free structures like bridges, dams, and flyovers etc. As usual, chemical engineers prefer to use corrosion resistant and eco-friendly materials for the pipeline and other storing chemicals in industries
  • Chapter 2

    Measurement and Instrumentation Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Each measurement can be written or expressed as a dimension. Dimensional measurements are the foundation of every industry whether manufacturing or service, business and commerce. Dimensional measurements are needed not only in the field of design of the machine parts or products, but the measurements play a very significant role in the success of a building design, and assembling work. Different types of measuring tools and gauges (also called gages) are used for the measurement and inspection for determining the accuracy of parts or products manufactured. Measuring instruments with digital readout devices allow to take direct reading of the values. In these instruments, the scale is replaced by a read-out device, which digitally displays the value of the quantity measured. Metrology is one of the branch of engineering which deals with the measurement and measuring tools. Some measurements may be computed others may be taken directly. Actual measurement may be made with direct reading measuring rules and others measuring instruments. Dimensional measurement is needed because of the following reasons: • To manufacture a product or any other object. • To describe the product or any other object. • To provide the much needed interchangeability of parts to the users by exercising the control over the dimensions of the parts to be produced. Controlled measurements are necessary in the manufacturing of interchangeable parts. Dimensional tolerance (i.e., the permissible variation in the dimension of a part) is another important aspect of metrology. The cost as well as the functioning of a product is greatly influenced by the tolerances. Numerous measuring tools are used in engineering metrology, each of which has its own application, sensitivity, and precision.
  • Chapter 3

    Machine Tools Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A machine tool is a machine for making components by removing material from the workpiece by using a cutting tool. Machine tools are capable of producing themselves therefore the machine tools are often referred to as mother machine. In the manufacturing processes, machine tools are the most versatile and almost any product can be produced with them. The machine tools should able to fulfill the following requirements: Requirements of a machine tool n The machine tool should be able to produce consistently the components of specified shape and size, dimensional accuracy and surface finish. These features depend upon the rigidity of the machine elements. n Machine tool should be able to provide the flexibility of machining the material at various cutting speeds and at different material removal rates. n The machine tools should be ergonomically designed so as to enable the operator to setup and control the machine without any problems.
  • Chapter 4

    Fluids Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Fluid Mechanics: Deals with study of all fluids under static and dynamic conditions. Fluid Statics: Deals with study of fluids at rest. Fluid Dynamics: Deals with study of fluids in motion. As we know, there are three states of matter. These are: (i) Solid, (ii) Liquid and (iii) Gases. The term fluid refers to both liquids and gases. Since we know the meaning of a solid so let see what is fluid? Liquid: For a given mass, a liquid can be treated as a fluid that will have a definite volume independent of the shape of a container. It means that the liquid will assume the shape of the container and fill the container up to that level which is equal to the volume of the liquid.
  • Chapter 5

    Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Since ages it has been the human tendency to search for more and more power. In early days men used animals for producing power. However the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century had motivated the engineers to search for the more effective and reliable sources of power. Being closer to nature, man first came in contact with fossil fuel followed by petroleum based fuel and then nuclear fuel and now lot of emphasis is being put on renewable resources. The continuous efforts made by the man in the direction of getting mechanical work resulted in the invention of a heat engine so that he can convert the energy stored in these fuels into useful energy capable of doing some useful work. Thermodynamics is the fundamental science that governs the processes taking place in a heat engine. Historically, the origin of thermodynamics is traced to a publication in 1824 by a French engineer, N.L.S. Carnot about his early studies on the performance of steam engine. Thermodynamics is one of the important branches of science and engineering, which deals with energy and its transformation and relationship between the heat, work and properties of the system. Thermodynamics deals only with macroscopic structure of the matter and does not concern itself with events happening at the molecular level. Every thermodynamics process involves the use of a working substance which has the ability to receive, store and reject energy as per the requirement of a particular application. The properties of the working substance should suit the specific process.
  • Chapter 6

    Laws of Thermodynamics and Entropy Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The first law of thermodynamics is same as the law of conservation of energy, which states that “energy can neither be created nor destroyed”. Energy however can be converted from one form into another form. The first law of thermodynamics is based on the relationship between heat and work.
  • Chapter 7

    Properties of Steam (Properties of pure substance) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A pure substance is homogenous in nature and retains constant chemical composition throughout its mass even though there may be a change of phase. It may exist in more than one phase. Its typical examples are water, atmospheric air, steam water-mixture etc. Water is an example of a pure substance which exists in all the three phases i.e., solid (ice), liquid, and vapour (steam). A working substance (or pure substance) is required for converting heat energy into mechanical work. It means a substance, which is capable of receiving heat energy from the combustion of the fuel can be used to run a prime mover (e.g., steam engine or steam turbine) for producing mechanical work. Steam is used as a working substance in the running of the steam engines and steam turbines. Some notable features of the steam
  • Chapter 8

    Boilers Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The boilers are used for the purpose of heating and power generation. Steam is the main working substance for the power generation in steam engine and steam turbine. Boiler is one of the main part of the steam power plant. The main task of a boiler is to produce steam at required pressure, which is then transformed into electrical energy in the steam power plant.
  • Chapter 9

    Steam Engine Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A steam engine is a device in which heat energy of fuel is converted into mechanical work through some working substance (steam). It is a reciprocating type of basic prime mover as it is used to drive other machines. Since steam engine converts energy directly from natural source into mechanical work therefore, it is also known as ‘prime mover of first order’.
  • Chapter 10

    Refrigeration Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The term refrigeration may be defined as the process of cooling a substance (i.e., process of removing heat from a substance). A refrigerator is a cyclic device for producing a low temperature atmosphere. The working substance used in the refrigeration cycles are called as refrigerants.
  • Chapter 11

    Air Standard Cycles Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    An internal combustion engine does not work on a thermodynamic cycle because the working fluid does not go through a complete cycle in the engine even though the engine operates in a mechanical cycle. An IC engines takes a mixture of air and fuel or air and fuel separately but it does not return to its original state after completion of cycle. The cycles encountered in actual devices such as IC engines are difficult to analyze because of the presence of many complicating factors such as friction, and the lack of time for achieving equilibrium conditions during the cycle. In order to analyze the internal combustion engines feasibly, idealized cycle known as air standard cycle is used. The conclusions derived from the analysis of ideal cycles are also applicable to actual cycles. The theoretical thermal efficiency of the ideal cycle is known as the air standard efficiency, since it is worked out on the basis of the working fluid being air throughout the cycle. The use of air eliminates the effect of the calorific value of fuel.
  • Chapter 12

    Internal Combustion Engines Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A heat engine is a device that transforms the chemical energy of fuel into thermal energy and utilizes this energy to produce mechanical work. Heat engines can be classified in two categories: (1) Internal combustion engine (I.C. Engine). (2) External combustion engine. In an external combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine cylinder whereas in case of an internal combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place in the engine cylinder. In internal combustion engine the working substance (fluid) is the products of combustion of air-fuel mixture. Internal combustion engines find wide applications in automobile sector, power boats, ships, locomotives and small power plants etc. The common examples of external combustion engines are: steam engine and steam turbine where the working fluid is steam. In case of an external combustion engine, the combustion of fuel takes place in a boiler where steam is produced by using the heat energy of combustion. Steam thus produced is utilized to produce power when steam acts on the piston of a steam engine cylinder or on the blades of a steam turbine. Another example of an external combustion engine is a closed cycle gas turbine in which heat of combustion from an outside furnace is transferred to air (or gas), which is used in a gas turbine. In external combustion engine the working fluid is entirely different from air-fuel mixture. The advantages of external combustion engines are: 􀁺 Use of low cost fuel (solid, liquid or gas) 􀁺 High starting torque 􀁺 Used for electric power generation. In case of an internal combustion engine, the thermal energy resulting from the combustion of fuel is converted directly to produce mechanical power. Since combustion takes place inside the engine cylinder, very high temp. (2000°C) is produced inside the cylinder. It is therefore necessary to remove some portion of the heat from the cylinder to prevent damage to the metal of the cylinder either by circulating the water through jacket around the cylinder or by cooling it through atmospheric air. The thermal efficiency of an internal combustion engine is high as compared to a steam engine plant as internal combustion engines do not have losses that arise due to use of boilers, condensers etc., in steam engine plant.

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