Biotechnology as a fast growing applied science has already impinged everyone’s day-to-day life. It is one of the major technologies of the twenty-first century like IT. Its multidisciplinary activities has made it everybody’s science. By this time biotechnology has given its impact in almost all areas of public life such as Public Health, Pharmaceuticals, Food and Agriculture, Industry, Bioenergetics Energy sector and information technology. Now it is very clear that biotechnology is not only a key technology for the 21st century, but also the science of the future. It has potential to ensure food security, dramatically reduce hunger and malnutrition, and reduce rural poverty particularly in the developing countries like India. Considering its commercial potential and its possible impact on the economy, government of India has taken a number of measures to build up trained human resource in biotechnology and promote research and development and its commercial aspects in the country. The introduction of biotechnology as a subject discipline in undergraduate levels in all universities of the country and in school at senior secondary level by CBSE are such initiatives to bring the subject to the basic level and make the students aware of the subject, its techniques, its economical potentials and its socio-political and ethical considerations.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-81-318-0474-2
  • Chapter 1

    CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Cell is the basic unit of life in all living forms from smallest bacterium to the most complex animal. According to the cell theory all living things are composed of one or more cells. One-celled organisms are called unicellular organisms and those with more than one cell in their body are called multicellular organisms. Virus particle does not have any cells and therefore is termed as acellular. No matter which type of cell we are considering, all cells have certain features in common: cell membrane, nucleic acids, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. Cells are small ‘sacks’ composed mostly of water. The ‘sacks’ are made from a phospholipid bilayer. This limiting outer membrane, the plasma membrane separates the outer environment from the contents of the cell. It is the communication link between the cell and its environment. The plasma membrane is semi-permeable, allowing some things to pass in or out of the cell and blocking others. Microscopes make it possible to magnify small objects such as cells in order to see the details of their structure. Both light and electron microscopes were used to study cells. Study of cells with a microscope is called cytology. There are some fundamental activities, which are common for most of the cell types from bacteria to the nerve cells in human. The study of these basic cellular processes is called cell biology.
  • Chapter 2

    BIOMOLECULES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The living cell of an organism is a chemical machine; its parts and its language are chemical. It is an assembly various types of biomolecules having diverse physico-chemical and biological properties. All these small and big biomolecules take part in a variety of biochemical reactions and the phenomenon of life is an out come these activities. Biopolymers or the biological macromolecules form the major class among the biomolecules both structurally and functionally. All cellular structures like cell wall, cell membranes, membranes of organelles, microtubules, flagella, and Celia etc. and there are a lot of biopolymers actively engaged in different metabolic reactions. For example biopolymers like cellulose Biomolecules are the compounds synthesized by the living organisms. These biological compounds are of different types having different size, shape, chemical and physical properties and biological functions. These Biomolecules include different classes of compounds, which are broadly divided in to two, depending on size and nature. Those molecules, which are complex polymers and bigger in size are known as Macromolecules and other molecules are simple in complexity and small in size. It includes all the ordinary organic molecules synthesized in a living system.. There are four types of macromolecules in biological systems namely carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Out of these four types three are polymers composed of monomers or the building blocks and lipids are not a polymer similar to that of carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids.
  • Chapter 3

    CELL DIVISION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Cell division is an integral part of the process of reproduction growth and repair of the body. During cell division, the genetic material is distributed among the daughter cells and this is an important phenomenon taking place during all types of cell divisions. There are two types of cell division observed in the eukaryotic cells. They are mitosis and meiosis. The distribution of genetic materials among the daughter cells are so important because their future development and generation of cells developing from that will be entirely depended on the genetic material that they receive from the parent cell. Mitosis is the cell division that occurs in the somatic cells (body cells) and meiosis takes place in the sex organs for the production of gametes. The main features and the process of mitosis and meiosis are discussed below.
  • Chapter 4

    GENES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The science of heredity or genetics deals with the mechanism by which traits or characters are transmitted from generation to generations. There are similarities and differences among the members of a species. The members of a particular species are basically similar with respect to a set of characters. At the same time they are different from other species in these basic characteristics. For example all human have a set of characteristics that define us as a species. We belong to vertebrates, because we have a backbone and a spinal cord like any other vertebrates. Among the vertebrates we belong to the group mammals because we are hot blooded animals, feeding the young ones with milk from mammary glands, like any other mammal. These characters define us as a mammal. Then, among the mammals we belong to a type of primates in finer details. We habitually stand upright with long legs, relatively little body hair, a large brain, distinct lips, small teeth and a jutting chin. These characters separate us from other primates like chimpanzees, Gorillas and other monkeys. These biological characters, which define us as a species, inherit with out any change from generation to generation. These characters will not differ from individual to individual. Thus there are some basic traits, which are common for all its members. By these characters one species identified from the other.
  • Chapter 5

    GENE EXPRESSION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Gene is the unit of heredity—it is the unit of recombination, mutation and cystron. Based on the data obtained from the experiments on pea plants, Mendel has very correctly predicted the presence and nature of genes, (which he interpreted as particulate factors) including the alternate forms of a gene called alleles. Today we know both its biochemical as well as its genetical aspects. A gene is defined as a segment of DNA molecule (A DNA molecule = a chromosome), which carries all the biochemical information of a polypeptide or RNA molecule, along with its regulatory elements. A complete gene should have the coding region of the protein or RNA along with its control elements. The size of the genes varies greatly. The minimum number or the average number of nucleotides in a gene can be considered as 1000 bp. The part of the gene that holds the sequences for the polypeptide chain or the RNA molecule (in the case of non protein genes like that of rRNA and tRNA etc.) is called the cistron or the coding region. Some genes as in the case of prokaryotes have more than one cistron in a gene controlled by single regulatory elements and such genes are known as polycistronic genes. The controlling elements are known as promoters and are located upstream to the coding region of a gene. The end of the cistron or the coding region is marked by specific signals called termination codons. In some cases the regulatory elements also includes certain sequences in addition to the promoters known as enhancers near or way from the promoters.
  • Chapter 6

    GENETIC ENGINEERING Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The field of modern biotechnology started when recombinant human insulin produced by bacteria was first marketed in the United States in 1982. The effort leading up to this landmark event began in the early 1970’s when research scientists developed protocols to construct new types of bacterial plasmids or vectors, by cutting out and pasting pieces of DNA together to create a new piece of DNA (recombinant DNA) that could be inserted into the host bacterium like Escherichia coli. We have also observed that yeasts can be made to produce vaccines like Hepatitis B, plants having special properties like resistance to certain diseases, pests and herbicides and plants with superior nutritive qualities can be generated very efficiently. These excellent goals of genetic engineering were achieved because of the advent of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA technology is one of the few techniques that made the conventional biotechnology into the “Modern Biotechnology”. Paul Berg, Herbert Boyer, Annie Change and Stanley Cohen are the team of scientist, who made the first recombinant DNA molecule in 1973.
  • Chapter 7

    DEVELOPMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Man has been employing living organisms knowingly or unknowingly from pre-historic times for the production of various things like alcoholic beverages, curds, cheese etc. There are evidences to show that Sumerians and Babylonians used to produce various types of wines and beers. In India, there is the description about ‘somarasa’, an intoxicating juice, probably a fermented juice, from a plant named ‘Soma’ in Vedic texts. The ancient Indian system of medicine Ayurveda used the self-generated alcohol as the medium in the medicines. From these it is very evident that the use of biotechnology is not a recent phenomenon but a very old technology, as old as human race. The term ‘biotechnology’ was used before the 20th century for traditional activities like making dairy products cheese and curd, bread, wine, beer etc. But none of these could be considered biotechnology in the modern sense. Genetic alteration of organisms through selective breeding, plant cloning by grafting etc. do not come under biotechnology. The process of fermentation for the preparation and manufacture of products like alcohol, beer, wine, dairy products, various types of organic acids like vinegar, citric acid, amino acids and vitamins can be termed as the classical biotechnology or the traditional biotechnology. Fermentation is the process by which living organisms like yeast or bacteria are employed to produce useful compounds or products.
  • Chapter 8

    APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Biotechnology is the commercial application of all types of biological reactions and processes. We are all aware of the opportunities created by advances in molecular biology. Living cells and its components can be used to produce a large number of useful compounds like therapeutics and other products. But to obtain the significant benefits as a commercial operation, it needs the support of biochemical engineering. The vital area of biotechnology that is concerned with practical application of biological agents (whole cell systems and biocatalysts), the methodologies and processes associated with it on an industrial scale is the biochemical engineering. It is applicable in different areas of biotechnology like biochemical reactions, enzyme technology, environmental biotechnology, microbial manipulations, bioseparation technology, plant and animal cell cultures and food technology. It consists of the development of new process technology, designing bioreactors, developing efficient, economically feasible extraction and purification procedures (downstream processing).
  • Chapter 9

    BIOTECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETY Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Science and Society Our perceptions or attitudes towards things are not always rational and are often culturally influenced. They are a combination of thoughts or the cognitive dimension, feelings or the affective dimension, and the way we react or the behavioural dimension. The cognitive dimension consists of things we know, the affective dimension of things we feel, and the behavioural dimension is how we will act on the attitudes we build. Attitudes help us to become socially acceptable, belonging to a group is very important, and it gives meaning to things we experience. The advancement in science and technology made our life very simple and fast. At the same time some of them has caused great concern regarding their long-term impacts on environment and life. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) also known as Brundtland Commission appointed by United Nations (UN) in 1985 recommended sustainable development preserving environment without any degradation. The Commission defined the sustainable development as “the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. There are a lot of definitions and views regarding the sustainable development for different nations. In all these views the common point in which all nations agreeing is that science and technology is portrayed as a double-edged sword.

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