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A construction is something made by man for one purpose or another. It may be a road or a path, a bridge, a dam, a dwelling place, or an airport or a commercial building.
Construction drawings are prepared so that designers can communicate their requirements to the contractor in a clear, concise and unambiguous manner.
The material supporting a building may be broadly classified into two categories: namely, soil and rock. Soil is the topmost layer of the earth’s crust and occurs in the form of particles of minerals such as quartz, stone, gravel, wood and decayed vegetable matter or decaying organic matter.
A foundation is that part of a structure which is in direct contact with the ground to which the loads are transmitted. Foundations are normally placed below the ground surface. The part of the building below the surface of the ground is called the sub-structure and that above the ground is called the superstructure.
The purpose of a floor is to provide a level surface capable of accommodation the occupants of a building, furniture, equipment and some times, internal partitions.
A wall may be defined as a vertical member of a building, the width of which exceeds four times its thickness. Wall is one of the most essential components of a building.
Stairs are sets of steps leading from one floor to another and are provided in a building to afford a means of communication between the various floors. Steps arranged in series and placed in an enclosure is called staircase.
A door is an openable barrier secured in a wall opening and is provided to give access, protection, safety and privacy to the inside of a room of a building.
A roof may be defined as the upper most part of the building, provided as a structural covering, to protect the building from external weather exposure such as rain, sun and wind. Basically, a roof consists of structural elements, which support roof coverings.
Building finishes are used to give protective coating to the surfaces which preserves and protects the materials used in building from weather effects such as rain water, heat, frost, etc. and to provide decorative finishes which add to the appearance of the material surfaces and building as a whole.
One of the basic requirements of a building is that it should remain dry or free from moisture passing through walls, roofs or floors.
It is well known that almost all building materials expand or contract due to change in temperature and variation in moisture content. The magnitude of such expansion or contraction depends upon the type of material used in construction and the extent of variation in the temperature and moisture content.
Formwork is a temporary structure that is required to support and form concrete members. Falsework is the complete structure erected to support the wet concrete.
The source of all water is rainfall. As it rains, water can be collected from roof before it falls on ground or as it flows on surface it gets collected in the form of ponds, lakes, streams, rivers or seas.
The open fire has been the generally accepted means of heating in rural Ethiopia where fire is made in the center of the house and the smoke escapes through the thatched roofs for many years.
Health and safety are the responsibility of everyone at work. It is of particular importance to the construction industry, where it is one of the major employers of the workforce in Ethiopia. Statistics indicate that injuries and death due to construction related accidents are increasing.
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