It gives me immense pleasure to express my sincere thanks to the teachers as well as the student-community for widely accepting the fourth edition of this book. Their suggestions and comments have prompted me to bring out this revised edition. The fifth edition has been revised and updated keeping in view the latest requirements of the course/syllabi prescribed by Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra w.e.f 2015–16 and by way of including the previous years question papers. On the suggestions of teachers, some corrections and alterations have also been incorporated. My sincere thanks are due to Dr. A.Pal professor of chemistry, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Dr. Sanjeev Arora, Associate professor of chemistry, Kurukshetra university, Kurukshetra, Dr. V.K Syal, former professor of chemistry, Himachal Pardesh University, Shimla, now professor of chemistry, KIIT college of Engineering Maruti Kung, Gurgaon, Dr. K.S. Sinha, former professor of chemistry, Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya (Bihar), Dr. Ram Kishore Manchiryal, Deptt. of civil engineering (Middle east college, Muscat, Oman), Dr. Arvind Devangan, professor of Civil Engg., Haryana College of technology and Management, Kaithal and Sh. Amit Kumar Ambasta, a Research Scholar, deptt. of physics, ISM (now known as IIT) Dhanbad for their valuable suggestions for the improvement of the book. I am also very much thankful to my collegeous Prof. (Dr.) Amit Vashistha and Dr. Parveen Kumar Gupta, deptt. of chemistry, Haryana College of Technology and Management, Kaithal for helpful discussion.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-81-318-0585-5
  • Chapter 1

    Thermodynamics Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The word thermodynamics is a combination of two words ‘therm’ and ‘dynamics’. ‘Therm’ means heat and ‘dynamics’ means motion. Hence thermodynamics means motion of heat and its interconversion into work. It may be defined as the branch of science which deals with the quantitative relationships between heat and other forms of energy. It is pure mathematical science and based upon some generalizations called ‘laws of thermodynamics’. These laws have been obtained purely on the basis of human experience and there is no theoretical proof for any of these laws. However, the validity of these laws is supported by the fact that nothing contrary to these laws has been found so far and nothing contrary is expected. It has wide applications in Engineering, Physics and Chemistry.
  • Chapter 2

    Phase Equilibria (Phase Rule) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Explanation of the Terms Involved in Phase Equilibria 1. Phase (P) A phase is a homogeneous, physically distinct and mechanically separable portion of the heterogeneous system, which is separated from other parts of the system by well defined boundary surface. It is denoted by ‘P’.
  • Chapter 3

    Water and its Treatment (Part I) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    After air, water is a natural wonderful and is the most common important and useful compound of hydrogen and oxygen for surviving of all living organisms. Without food human being can survive for a number of days but without water no body can survive. Our body contains 70–75% of water which regulates life process such as digestion of food, transportation of nutrients, excreation of body wastes. It is important participant of photosynthesis. It regulates body temperature by the process of sweating and evaporation. It provides a medium for all biochemical reactions take place inside our body. It is a universal solvent and the versatile nature of water is due to some of its interesting properties. That’s why it is widely used in laboratories, industrial purposes, irrigation, air-conditioning, steam generator, fire-fighting etc. besides drinking, bathing, sanitary, etc.
  • Chapter 4

    Water and its Treatment (Part II) Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    TREATMENT OF WATER FOR DOMESTIC USE Water, which is safe to drink, is known as potable water. Drinking (potable) water has following characteristics: 1. It should be colourless, odourless, tasteless and transparent. 2. It should be free from hardness, suspended particles and pathogenic bacterias (microorganisms). 3. It should neither be very hard nor be very soft. 4. The turbidity should not exceed 10 ppm. 5. Its pH value should be about 7.0–7.5. 6. It should be free from harmful dissolved solids like compounds of arsenic or lead etc., and harmful dissolved gases like H2S, SO2, etc. 7. The total dissolved solids (TDS) should be less than 500 ppm. Pure soft water is plumbo-solvent i.e., it attacks lead used in plumbing. For health point of view some minerals and ions must be present in water. Drinking water possesses about 60–70 ppm hardness. It is firm and suitable for health.
  • Chapter 5

    Green Chemistry Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Definition and Concept It is just like environmental chemistry i.e., Eco-friendly. The main aim of green chemistry is ‘Chemical products’ should be as effective as possible for their designated purpose but with minimum toxicity. It may be defined as the process by which we invent or use such type of chemical products, which reduces or eliminates the production of hazardous substances. It means the use of toxic substances should be minimized and preferably totally avoided. The most effective ways to prevent generation of wastes is to make sure that in so far as possible all materials involved in making a product should be incorporated into the final product. The basic rule of green chemistry is the waste prevention is much better than waste clean up. It means all raw materials should be converted into the product, if at all possible. But in actual practice it is not possible. So the main focus is to minimize the by-products specially toxic substances during the formation of products. Since it is environment friendly so it is also called clean chemistry or Eco-friendly chemistry. The polution free environment may be created up to certain limits by using less harmful chemicals, pesticides etc.
  • Chapter 6

    Corrosion and its Prevention Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    It is the process of slowly deterioration and consequent loss of a solid metallic material from the metallic surface due to unwanted attack by the atmospheric gases, soil, chemical or electrochemical environment etc. It is very slow process and starts from the surface of a metal. Its process is just “reverse of extraction of metals.”
  • Chapter 7

    Lubrication and Lubricants Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Lubricants are those type of substances which are used to reduce the frictional forces between two surfaces contact each other. It does not allow the direct contact between two rubbing surfaces because it reduces the co-efficient of friction between two surfaces. The process of decreasing the frictional forces between the surfaces is called ‘lubrication’. Lubricants play very important role in machines, tools and many apparatus. It is very useful to non-living as well as living things. We (human beings) also use oil, creams etc. for maintenance the smoothness of our skins. For examples, grease, oil, vaseline, cream, etc. are widely used as lubricants.
  • Chapter 8

    Engineering Materials Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Engineering materials are those type of materials which can be used in industries, construction and are very important to engineers. Ceramics and cement materials are most common engineering materials and are widely used.
  • Chapter 9

    Nanoscale Materials Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Nanotechnology is the technology in which we control or manipulate the size of atoms or molecules between the dimensions 1–100 nanometers (nm) to produce such type of systems or devices having at least one superior or novel property for different applications. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick. A single gold atom is about one-third of a nanometer. Dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nm are known as the nanoscale. Unusual physical, chemical and biological properties can emerge in materials at the nanoscale. These properties may differ from the properties of bulk materials and single atoms or molecules. The materials which are designed by controlled manipulation in the shape and size in the nanometer scale are called nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are prepared by several processes like ‘topdown’ and ‘bottom-up’. The top-down process is used only for hard and brittle materials. In this process bulk materials are crushed into powder form using high-energy ball mill, to get the size of nanomaterials. The bottom-up process involves a number of methods like wet chemical synthesis, Gas Condensation processing, Chemical vapour condensation, Laser ablation technique, electrodeposition, solvothermal analysis etc. Laser ablation method is extremely used for the preparation of nanoparticles and particulate films.

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