Concrete has become indispensable in construction of modern buildings, bridges, nuclear structures, off shore structures and in many other applications. This is generally preferred for desired strength and high durability during the service life of the structure. Concrete is the second largest material consumed by human civilization now a days just after water. Over the recent years, there is a huge increase in the concrete production throughout the world. The subject has, therefore, been incorporated in various institutes to make this material familiar to students. But the number of books in the market is still limited. Present book has been written in a simple and lucid manner incorporating the recent developments of the subject so that the future engineers are well acquainted with the subject during their undergraduate study. Present book contains fundamentals of the subject concrete technology such as hydration of cement, cement types, concrete making materials, workability, hardened properties of concrete, durability, mix design, chemical and mineral admixtures, special concretes, high performance concrete, self compacting concrete, non-destructive testing, waste materials in concrete. The book will serve as a textbook at undergraduate level in Civil Engineering in Indian Universities, NITs and IITs.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-81159-62-0
  • Chapter 1

    Introduc Tion Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Ever since civilizations first started to build, the human race has sought a material that binds stones into solid formed mass. The Romans mixed lime (i.e., burned limestone) with volcanic ash from Mount Vesuvius that produced structures of remarkable durability. During the Middle Ages, the art of making hydraulic cement (cement that hardens when it comes in contact with water) became lost and it was not until the year of 1824 that the hydraulic cement (now commonly known as Portland cement) reappeared when it was patented by a Leeds builder named Joseph Aspdin. The name “Portland cement” was given originally due to the resemblance of the colour and quality of the hardened cement to Portland stone (limestone quarried in Dorset). The most widely used modern construction material is concrete that is made by mixing Portland cement with sand, crushed rock and water. Man consumes no material except water in such tremendous quantities
  • Chapter 2

    Hydraulic Cements Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Concrete, made from cement, aggregates, chemical admixtures, mineral admixtures and water, is any product or mass made by the use of a cementing medium. The active constituent of concrete is cement paste and the performance of concrete is largely determined by the cement paste. Admixtures in concrete confer some beneficial effects such as acceleration, retardation, air entrainment, water reduction, plasticity, etc., and they are related to the cement-admixture interaction. Mineral admixtures such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume, and others, also improve the quality of concrete.
  • Chapter 3

    Aggregates And Water Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Aggregates are those parts of concrete that constitute the bulk of the finished product. They comprise 60%–80% of the total volume of concrete and have to be so chosen that the entire mass of concrete acts as relatively solid, homogenous, dense combination, with the smaller sizes acting as an inert filler of the voids that exist between the larger particles. Aggregates are of two types: 1. Coarse aggregate such as gravel, crushed stone or blast furnace slag; 2. Fine aggregate such as natural or manufactured sand. Since the aggregates constitute the major portion of the mixture, the more the aggregate in concrete, the cheaper is the concrete, provided that the mixture is of reasonable workability for the specified job for which it is used.
  • Chapter 4

    Workability Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Concrete has become the most widely used structural material today. Concrete has two distinct stages: fresh and hardened stage. Hardened concrete should possess definite shape, good appearance, adequate strength and durability. The performance requirements of hardened concrete are more or less well defined with respect to shape, finish, strength, durability, shrinkage and creep.
  • Chapter 5

    Concrete In Plastic And Early Stage Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The contents of this chapter, cover the problems of concrete that may take place in plastic stage and early stage of concrete. The occurrences such as settlement, plastic shrinkage and thermal cracks may lead to future durability problems if these are not properly appreciated and treated.
  • Chapter 6

    Chemical Admixtures Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Admixtures for concrete are defined as materials other than hydraulic cement, aggregates or water that are added immediately before or during mixing. The most important admixtures are ones added to accelerate or retard setting, to decrease the quantity of water needed to obtain a given degree of workability, or to entrain air in order to increase freeze-thaw resistance of concrete.
  • Chapter 7

    Mineral Admixtures Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mineral admixtures are finely divided siliceous materials that are added to concrete in relatively large amounts. By-products from thermal power plants, ferrosilicon alloys, blast furnace slag being produced at the rate of millions of tonnes every year and these waste products pose problems of disposal, and are a source of air and land pollution. These waste products exhibit excellent pozzolanic property and therefore can be effectively utilized in concrete industry. Such pozzolans are also sometimes called artificial pozzolana. ASTM defines pozzolana as a siliceous or siliceous and aluminous material which in itself possesses little or no cementing property but will, in a finely divided form and in the presence of water react with calcium hydroxide at ordinary temperature and pressure to give calcium silicate hydrate.
  • Chapter 8

    Mineral Admixtures Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mineral admixtures are finely divided siliceous materials that are added to concrete in relatively large amounts. By-products from thermal power plants, ferrosilicon alloys, blast furnace slag being produced at the rate of millions of tonnes every year and these waste products pose problems of disposal, and are a source of air and land pollution. These waste products exhibit excellent pozzolanic property and therefore can be effectively utilized in concrete industry. Such pozzolans are also sometimes called artificial pozzolana.
  • Chapter 9

    Rheology Of Concrete Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this chapter, a description of fluid rheology and the different measurement techniques of rheological parameters of concrete are presented. Some important definitions related to concrete rheology has also been included so that the reader may easily understand the principles of fluid rheology. Constitutive equations of fluid flow, thixotropy, dilatancy of concrete, wall effect, plug flow, particle migration, particle sedimentation and end effect have made the chapter more comprehensive to the readers. Finally, complete description of the available concrete rheometers including the conceptual design, actual design and derivation of torque-speed relationship is provided.
  • Chapter 10

    Strength Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The usual primary requirement of good concrete is a satisfactory compressive strength in its hardened state. The strength of a material can be defined as the ability of the material to resist the applied load without failure. Since hardened concrete already contains some micro-cracks before it is subjected to any load, failure in this case is therefore, not directly identified with the appearance of cracks. Concrete strength is taken as the maximum stress concrete sample can withstand before failure. In concrete design, strength is usually specified because it is the property which can be easily determined in the laboratory. Compressive strength is closely related to same concrete micro-structural features that govern other properties such as elastic modulus and durability. Universally, 28 day uniaxial compressive strength of concrete is taken as the index of the concrete strength.
  • Chapter 11

    Durability Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The principle for good design practice is to design a structure that is able to sustain design load up to its required service life without excessive cost of repair and maintenance. Concrete can deteriorate when subjected to severe environment. Various physical, mechanical and chemical processes, poor detailing of reinforcement, poor workmanship can cause deterioration of concrete which may cause reduction in the mechanical properties and performance of structures. Deterioration can occur in various forms, such as alkali-aggregate expansion reaction, freeze-thaw expansion, salt scaling by deicing salts, shrinkage and enhanced attack on the reinforcement of steel due to carbonation, sulfate attack on exposure to ground waters containing sulfate ions, sea water attack, and corrosion caused by salts
  • Chapter 12

    Concrete Mix Design Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Proper design of concrete mixtures is intended to obtain such proportioning of ingredients that will produce concrete with high durability performance during the desired designed life of a structure. It is always difficult to develop a theoretical mix design method that can be used universally with any combination of cement, any aggregates because the criteria of all the components are too broad. Moreover, the same properties of fresh and hardened properties of concrete can be achieved in different ways from the same materials. A mix design method only provides a starting mix design that will have to be modified to meet the desired concrete characteristics. In spite of the fact that mix proportioning is an art, it is unquestionable that some scientific principles can be used as a basis for mix calculation.
  • Chapter 13

    High -performance Concrete Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    High strength concrete seems to have become the key word in today’s concrete technology. In the early 1940s, 30 N/mm 2 (at 28 day) was considered to be the representative of high strength concrete. This level jumped to 50 N/mm 2 in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Concrete strengths of 100–130 N/mm 2 is now being viewed as the criteria for high strength. Just how far we can go to reach an ultimate in strength in the future is nobody’s guess. High strength concrete is among the most significant ideal materials available in the market to rehabilitate and enhance the performance of the nation’s crumbling infrastructure such as assisting the widespread problems of deteriorated bridge structures and tall buildings. In the precast and prestressed concrete industries, the use of high strength concrete has resulted in a rapid turnover of moulds, higher productivity and less loss of products during handling and transportation. The well-known ‘Laws’ and ‘rules of thumb’ that apply to normal strength concrete may well not apply to high strength concrete. ACI 363R and other ACI guidelines address some recommendations on placing, compacting and curing of high strength concrete. However design of high strength concrete entails detailed knowledge of properties of local materials, i.e., aggregates, cement and pozzolanic admixtures
  • Chapter 14

    Self - Compacting Concrete Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    There remains always a doubt regarding the full compaction of concrete during its placing to achieve the required strength and durability. Due to the lack of skilled manpower and other social constraints, it is very difficult to compact concrete with vibrators at construction sites. Self- Compacting Concrete (SCC) is that type of concrete which requires no inner or outer vibration for the compaction. SCC compacts itself alone due to its self-weight and de-aerated almost completely while flowing in the formwork. SCC flows like ‘honey’ and has nearly a horizontal concrete level after placing. Originally developed in Japan by Professor Hajime Okamura in the late 1980’s, the SCC has now been taken up with enthusiasm throughout the world for both site and precast work. SCC is a type of high-performance concrete where a compressive strength of M150 has been achieved.
  • Chapter 15

    Fiber Reinforced Concrete Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) is defined as concrete made with hydraulic cement, fine or fine and coarse aggregate and discontinuous discrete fibers. For structural applications, steel fibers are used as complementary reinforcement to increase the cracking resistance, flexural and shear strength, impact resistance and ductility of RCC elements. Fibers are used in cementitious materials in order to improve the characteristics in the hardening or the hardened state.
  • Chapter 16

    Non - Destructive Testing Of Concrete Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The need for non-destructive testing (NDT) of concrete may arise due to variety of reasons. These are: assessment of structural integrity or safety following material deterioration, structural damage caused by fire, fatigue or overload, adequacy of members suspected to contain unspecified material, fault in design, and monitoring long term changes in material properties and structural performance. NDT is generally defined as not impairing the intended performance of element or member under test, and when applied to concrete is taken to include methods which cause localized surface zone damage. All NDT methods can be performed directly on the in-situ concrete without removal of a sample.
  • Chapter 17

    Additional Topics In Concrete Technology Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Several physical, chemical and mechanical techniques are being applied in research of concrete over recent years. They provide important information including characterization of raw materials, cured concrete, quantitative estimation of products of hydration. Information on the specialized techniques are scattered in literature and hence latest knowledge on the various methods are compiled and presented in this chapter.
  • Chapter 18

    Waste Materials In Concrete Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Waste is defined as any material which is by-product of human and industrial activity and has no residual value. Many of the non-decaying waste materials will remain in the environment for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years. The non-decaying waste materials cause a waste disposal crisis, thereby contributing to the environmental problems. The problem of waste accumulation exists worldwide, specifically in the densely populated areas. Most of these materials are left as stockpiles, landfill material or illegally dumped in selected areas. Table 17.1 shows the solid waste disposed at landfill in some countries. Large quantities of this waste cannot be eliminated. However, the environmental impact can be reduced by making more sustainable use of this waste. This is known as the “Waste Hierarchy’’. Its aim is to reduce, reuse, or recycle waste, the latter being the preferred option of waste disposal. Figure 17.1 shows a sketch of the waste hierarchy.

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