It is said, "One month of IT is equivalent to one social year." The domains of IT are expanding by each passing day, month and year. Everyday, newer application softwares are being developed, with programming as the base, which itself has its essentials in Data Structure and File Structure. A good programmer is expected to know both these skills. Standard softwares like Customer Relationship Management and ERP, which need Data Structures are in great demand.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-81-318-0298-4
  • Chapter 1

    BASIC CONCEPTS OF DATA REPRESENTATION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Data representation deals with the generalization of data in terms of type. A type is a set, and the elements of the set are called the value of the type. We may think that type integer represents the set of all integers, type real represents the set of all real numbers. C defines some built-in data types. C type int, for example, is not the set of all integers rather it is a subset of a set integer with a maximum range INT_MAX. Similarly, the C type double generally means a certain set of floating point numbers that is only a small subset of the set of all real numbers. C provides tools such as arrays, files and pointers with which we can build new types called structured types. We will discuss structured type in detail in due course.
  • Chapter 2


    Software engineering methods are used to solve a complex real life problem. Problem definition is the first step to solve a problem. Algorithm design is the second step to solve a problem. We will discuss algorithm design and analysis for an algorithm in following sections. There are two approaches for algorithm design, we will study both top down and bottom up approaches for algorithm design. There is always a time-space trade off in the algorithm implementation. The study of complexity measures in terms of time and space is very important for algorithm analysis. Finally, structured approach to programming is discussed in this chapter.
  • Chapter 3

    ARRAYS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    An array is a collection of data storage locations, each having the same data type and the same name. Each storage location in an array is called an array element. Why do you need arrays in your programs ? This question can be answered with an example given below. Figure 3.1 illustrates the difference between using individual variables and an array. If you are keeping track of your business expenses for the current financial year, and filing your receipts by month, you could have a separate folder for each month’s receipts, but it would be more convenient to have a single folder with twelve compartments. Extend this example to computer programming. Imagine that you are designing a program to keep track of your business expense totals. The program could declare twelve separate variables, one for each month’s expense total. This approach is analogous to having twelve separate folders for your receipts. Good programming practice, however, would utilize an array with twelve elements, storing each month’s total in the corresponding array element. This approach is comparable to filing your receipts in a single folder with twelve compartments.
  • Chapter 4

    APPLICATION OF ARRAYS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Arrays are most frequently used in programming. Mathematical problems like matrix algebra can be easily handled by arrays. Sparse array is another important application of arrays. Main objective of using arrays is to minimize the space requirement and improving the execution speed of a program. Arrays are also known as vectors. Arrays are widely used in scientific applications.
  • Chapter 5

    C STRUCTURES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Many real life projects are coded in “C” language. When we work on a real life project, then there is a need to define some entities and their attributes. Entities are called objects in Object Oriented Programming. Let us consider an example of real life project, “The University Management System”. Certainly, this system will keep all information of the university students. In such a project students would be an entity set and a particular student is called an entity. Now the student name, age, roll number etc. are attributes of the student. So when we have to develop a software for this system, then student should be declared with its attributes in memory. And this is possible in C language to declare such entities and attributes using structures.
  • Chapter 6

    LISTS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    One of the needs of writing algorithms in data structure is to use computer memory efficiently. When we have to write an algorithm to solve a problem then it is a good strategy to categorise logically related data and to store such data as a collection object inside memory. Such a collection object can store homogeneous set of elements or objects. The collection object which stores homogeneous elements inside it is called a list.
  • Chapter 7

    STACK AND QUEUES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A stack is a homogeneous collection of items, arranged linearly with access at one end only, called the top. This means that data can be added or removed from only the top. Formally, this type of stack is called a Last In First Out (LIFO) stack. Data is added to the stack using the Push operation, and removed using the Pop operation. These will be covered in coming sections.
  • Chapter 8

    GRAPHS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

  • Chapter 9

    TREE Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The term “tree” is used in Computer Science to denote a particular type of abstract data structure. Trees contain data in structures called nodes, which are in turn linked to other nodes in the tree. Every tree has a primary node called a root from which all other branch nodes in the tree descend. The nodes that have no descendents are called leaf nodes. Additionally, each node is the parent of subtrees. Every node in a tree has 0 or more children. One or more of the subtrees may have no elements and are called empty subtrees. In this way a tree can be described as being made up of multiple subtrees.
  • Chapter 10

    FILE SYSTEM Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Files are the sequence of bytes. File may also be defined as named collection of records. File structure deals with writing algorithms to organize files in a required manner. We will not discuss the entire file structure in detail but discuss general types of files. KEY TERMS File organization. A technique for physically arranging the records of a file on secondary storage devices. Sequential file organization. Records in the file are stored in sequence according to a primary key value. Indexed file organization. Records are either stored sequentially or non-sequentially and an index is created that allows software to locate individual records. Hashing file organization. The address for each record is determined using a hashing algorithm. Denormalization. The process of transforming normalized relations into unnormalized physical record specifications. The transformation is done to improve the efficiency of access for certain transactions. Index. A table or other data structure used to determine the location of rows in a file that satisfies some condition.
  • Chapter 11

    SORTING AND SEARCHING HASHING AND COLLISION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points


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