Sciences, Technology & Medicine

## Engineering Heat and Mass Transfer

This book is thoroughly upgraded and improved to incorporate the syllabi of various universities and competitive examinations. It is especially designed to serve as a basic text for undergraduate course in Heat and Mass Transfer for students of Mechanical/ Chemical/ Aeronautic/ Production/ Metallurgical Engineering. The book follows the straight forward presentation of an extensive discussion of basic topics, classical pattern treating the subject analytically and numerically. Throughout the text, the emphasis has been laid on clear understanding of the theoretical concepts followed by the pertinent applications. Addressing the need of students, the book enumerates the required steps towards the solution of numerical problems by the use of systematic procedure characterized by a prescribed format.
• Publisher: Laxmi Publications
• Language: English
• ISBN : 978-81-318-0613-5
Total Price: 50.83
• Chapter 1

### Concepts and Mechanisms of Heat Flow Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

Its simple answer is the definition of heat or heat energy. Heat is a form of energy in transit due to temperature difference. Heat transfer is transmission of energy from one region to another region as a result of temperature difference between them. Whenever there exists a temperature difference in mediums or within a media, heat transfer must occur.
• Chapter 2

### Conduction—Basic Equations Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

2.1. Generalised One Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation. 2.2. Three Dimensional Heat Conduction Equation— For the cartesian coordinates—Three dimensional heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates—Three dimensional heat con- duction equation in spherical coordinates. 2.3. Initial and Boundary Conditions —Prescribed temperature boundary condi- tions—Prescribed heat flux boundary conditions—Convection boundary conditions : Surface energy balance—Radiation bound- ary condition—Interface boundary condition. 2.4. Summary—Review Questions—Problems.
• Chapter 3

### Steady State Conduction Without Heat Generation Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

3.1. Plane Wall. 3.2. Electrical Analogy of Heat Transfer Rate Through a Plane Wall. 3.3. Multilayer Plane Wall— Plane slabs in series—Heat conduction through parallel slabs—Composite wall in series and parallel—Overall heat transfer coefficient. 3.4. Thermal Contact Resistance. 3.5. Long Hollow Cylinder —Electrical analogy for hollow cylinder—Multilayer hollow cylinders—Overall heat transfer coefficient—Log mean area. 3.6. Critical Thickness of Insulation on Cylinders —Effect of thermal resistances. 3.7. Hollow Sphere—Electrical analogy for hollow sphere—Multilayer hollow sphere—Overall heat transfer coefficien—Criticalradius of insulation on sphere. 3.8. Summary—Review Questions—Problems.
• Chapter 4

### Steady State Conduction with Heat Generation Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

4.1. The Plane Wall—Specified temperatures on both sides—Plane wall without heat generation—Plane wall with insulated and convectiveboundaries—Plane wall exposed to convection environment on its both boundaries—The maximum temperature in the wall. 4.2. TheCylinder—Solid cylinder with specified surface temperature—Solid cylinder exposed to convection environment. 4.3. Hollow Cylinder withHeat Generation and Specified Surface Temperatures—Hollow cylinder insulated at its inner surface—The location of maximum temperaturein the cylinder—4.4. The Sphere—Solid sphere with convective boundary—Solid sphere with specified surfacetemperature—4.5. Summary—Review Questions—Problems—References and Suggested Reading.
• Chapter 5

### Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

5.1. Types of Fins. 5.2. Fin Selection and Applications. 5.3. Governing Equation. 5.4. Fin Performance—Fin effectiveness—Finefficiency—Overall fin effectiveness—Area weighted fin efficiency. 5.5. Approximate Solution of Fin: Concept of Corrected Fin Length. 5.6. Error in Temperature Measurement by Thermometers. 5.7. Design Considerations for Fins—Space considerations : Condition for use of fins—Weight consideration. 5.8. Summary—Review Questions—Problems.
• Chapter 6

### Transient Heat Conduction Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

6.1. Approximate Solution—Systems with negligible internal resistance : lumped system analysis—Dimensionless quantities—Thermaltime constant and response of thermocouple—The lumped system analysis for mixed boundary conditions—The validity of lumped systemanalysis. 6.2. Analytical Solution—Criteria for neglecting internal temperature gradients—Infinite cylinder and sphere with convectiveboundaries—One term approximation. 6.3. Transient Temperature Charts : Heisler and Gröber Charts—Transient temperature chartsfor slab—Transient temperature charts for long cylinder and sphere. 6.4. Transient Heat Conduction inSemi Infinite Solids—Penetrationdepth and penetration time. 6.5. Transient Heat Conduction in Multidimensional Systems. 6.6. Summary—Review Questions—Problems—References and Suggested Reading.
• Chapter 7

### Principles of Convection Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

7.1. Mechanism of Heat Convection. 7.2. Classification of Convection. 7.3. Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient. 7.4. Convection Boundary Layers—Velocity boundary layer—Thermal boundary layer—Significance of boundary layers. 7.5. Laminar and TurbulentFlow—Laminar boundary layer—Turbulent boundary layer. 7.6. Momentum Equation for Laminar Boundary Layer. 7.7.Energy Equationfor the Laminar Boundary Layer. 7.8. Boundary Layer Similarities—Friction coefficient—Nusselt number. 7.9. Determination ofConvection Heat Transfer Coefficient—Dimensional analysis—Exact mathematical solutions—Approximate analysis of boundary layers—Analogy between heat and momentum transfer—Numerical analysis. 7.10. Dimensional Analysis—Primary dimensions and dimensionalformulae—Dimensional homogeneity—Rayleigh’s method ofdimensional analysis—Buckingham π theorem—Dimensional analysis for forcedconvection—Dimensional analysis for natural convection. 7.11. Physical Significance of the Dimensionless Parameters—Reynoldsnumber—Critical reynolds number Re cr —Prandtl number—Grashof number—Nusselt number—Stanton number—Peclet number—Graetznumber. 7.12. Turbulent Boundary Layer Heat Transfer—Prandtl mixing length concept—Turbulent heat transfer. 7.13. Reynolds Colburn Analogy for Turbulent Flow Over a Flat Plate. 7.14. Mean Film Temperature and Bulk Mean Temperature. 7.15. Summary—ReviewQuestions—Problems—References and Suggested Reading .
• Chapter 8

### External Flow Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

When a fluid flows over a body such as plate, cylinder,sphere etc., it is regarded as an external flow . In such a flow, the boundary layer develops freely without anyconstraints imposed by adjacent surfaces. Accordingly, the region of flow, outside the boundary layer in whichthe velocity and temperature gradients are negligible is called the free stream regioWhen a fluid flows over a body such as plate, cylinder, sphere etc., it is regarded as an external flow . In such aflow, the boundary layer develops freely without any constraints imposed by adjacent surfaces. Accordingly, the region of flow, outside the boundary layer in which the velocity and temperature gradients are negligibleis called the free stream regio
• Chapter 9

### Internal Flow Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

The flow of fluid through the tubes and ducts fortransporting cooling and heating fluids, etc., is of engineering importance. Most heat exchangers involve the heating or cooling of fluids flowing in the tubes. The fluid in such applications is forced to flow by a fan or pump through a tube that is sufficiently long to accomplish desired heating or cooling. Pressure drop and heat flux are associated with forced flow through the tubes and friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are used to determine the pumping power and length of tube.
• Chapter 10

### Internal Flow Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

The flow of fluid through the tubes and ducts fortransporting cooling and heating fluids, etc., is of engineering importance. Most heat exchangers involve the heating or cooling of fluids flowing in the tubes. The fluid in such applications is forced to flow by a fan or pump through a tube that is sufficiently long to accomplish desired heating or cooling. Pressure drop and heat flux are associated with forced flow through the tubes and friction factor and heat transfer coefficient are used to determine the pumping power and length of tube.
• Chapter 11

### Natural Convection Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

In natural convection, the fluid motion is due to buoyancy forces within the fluid. The buoyancy forces are developed due to density variation in the fluid caused by temperature difference between the fluid and adjacent surface. The larger the temperature difference in adjacent fluid, the larger the buoyancy force and stronger natural convection currents and higher the heat transfer rate. Whenever a heated object for an example a hot egg, is exposed to atmospheric air, the air adjacent to the hot egg gets heated and becomes lighter (less dense) and thus rises up as shown in Fig. 10.1. This motion leads to the formation of the boundary layer on the surface of the egg and the heat is transferred fromthe warmer boundary layer to outer atmospheric air by natural convection. The velocity of air is zero at the boundary surface and it is significant outside the boundary layer.
• Chapter 12

### Condensation and Boiling Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

The condensers and boilers are widely used heat transfer equipments in the industries. The condensation and boiling involve convection processes associated with change of phase of fluid. Because there is a phase change during the process, the fluid transfers the latent heat only at its saturation temperature.
• Chapter 13

### Thermal Radiation: Properties and Processes Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

Thermal radiation or radiation heat transfer is a distinct separate mechanism from conduction and convection for transfer of heat energy. It refers to the heat energy emitted by the bodies because of their temperatures. All bodies at a temperature above absolute zero tempera- ture emit energy by a process of electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of such radiation depends upon the temperature and nature of the surface. The energy transfer by radiation does not require any medium between hot and cold surfaces. The energy transfer by radiation is the fastest (at the speed of light) and it does not suffer any attenuation even in the vacuum. In fact,the heat transfer through an evacuated space can occur only by radiation. When a person sits infront of a fire, he gets most of the heat energy by radiation as shown in Fig. 12.1. Further, it is also interesting that the radiation heat transfer can also occur between two bodies separated by a medium that is colder than the both bodies. For an example, the energy emitted by sun reaches the earth surface after travelling through space and extremely cold air layers at high altitudes.
• Chapter 14

### Radiation Exchange between Surfaces Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

In the previous chapter, our discussion was restricted to radiation properties, physical relation, and radiation processes that occur at a single surface. In this chapter, we will consider the radiation heat exchange between two or more surfaces. Such type of radiation exchange depends on the surface geometries, surface orientation as well as their temperatures and radiative properties. We will consider that the surfaces are separated by non- participating medium. Such medium neither emits, absorbs nor scatters any amount of radiation energy. Moreover, such medium has no effect on radiative heat transfer between bodies.
• Chapter 15

### Heat Exchangers Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

A device used for exchange of heat between the two fluids that are at different temperatures, is called the heat exchanger. The heat exchangers are commonly used in wide range of applications, for example, in a car as radiator, where hot water from the engine is cooled by atmospheric air. In a refrigerator, the hot refrigerant from the compressor is cooled by convection into atmosphere by passing it through finned tubes. In a steam condenser, the latent heat of condensation is removed by circulating water through the tubes. The heat exchangers are also used in space heating and air-conditioning, waste heat recovery and chemical processing. Therefore, the different types of heat exchangers are needed for different applications.
• Chapter 16

### Mass Transfer Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

We have so far dealt with conduction, convection and radiation modes of heat transfer, in which energy transfer takes place due to temperature difference in the medium(s). Similarly, if there is a concentration difference within two or more species (components) of a mixture, then mass transfer must occur in order to minimize the concentration difference within the system.
• Chapter 17

### Experiments in Engineering Heat Transfer Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

Engineering education has placed a great emphasis on the ability of an individual to perform experiments along with a theoretical analysis of the problems. The experimental methods have their own importance. They help in better understanding of the basic principles ofthe subject and to verify the result obtained analytically. Therefore, in engineering curiculla, the students are expected to devote one laboratory period a week for experimentation. The students are exposed to the basic instruments and get acquainted with the methods used for measuring the physical properties.