The demand for a simple and standard book on Human Anatomy and Physiology for Undergraduate students has been felt since long time. We feel pleasure in presenting this book in a simple, interesting and self-explanatory manner.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-86202-55-0
  • Chapter 1

    Contents

    The document contains the contents.

  • Chapter 2

    Preface

    The document contains the preface.

  • Chapter 3

    Chapter 1 - Nature and scope of Anatomy Physiology and Basic Terminology Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    To know various facts about living organisms along with the instinct to survive gave birth to the subject Biology. It is the science dealing with living organisms, which covers aspects of living organisms like origin, occurrence, external and internal organisation, life history and inheritance. This constitutes various branches of biology Physiology and Anatomy.

  • Chapter 4

    Chapter 2 - Chemistry of Life Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The study of living world reveals that there exist a hierarchy at the structural level, with each lower level emerging into a complex higher one. Every living organism is made of cells which form tissues, organs, organ systems and organism.

  • Chapter 5

    Chapter 3 - Cell-Components Functions and cell division Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    One of the basic tenets of biology is that all living things are composed of cells. Some organisms consist of a single cell, while others have multiple cells, organized into tissues and tissues organized into organs. In many living things, organs function together as an organ system. However, even in these complex organisms, the basic biology revolves around the activities of the cell.

  • Chapter 6

    Chapter 4 - Elementary Tissues of Human Body Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The term tissue was given by French surgeon, Bichat (1771–1802). Tissue is a group of cells that have similar structure and that function together as a unit. Several tissues are found in an organ which also has its own blood and nervous supplies. An organ system performs related tasks, e.g., the digestive system that includes the gut tube, pancreas and liver. A nonliving material, called the intercellular matrix, fills the spaces between the cells. This may be abundant in some tissues and minimal in others. The intercellular matrix may contain special substances such as salts and fibers that are unique to a specific tissue and gives those tissue distinctive characteristics. Tissues are classified according to the size, shape and functions of its’s cells. There are four main types of tissues in the body: epithelial, connetive, muscle, and nervous, each of which has it’s subdivisions.

  • Chapter 7

    Chapter 5 - The Osseous System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. We are actually born with more bones, about 300, but many fuse together as child grows up. These bones support our body and allows us to move. These bones support the body and provide protection for organs such as the brain, heart and lungs. The bones of the skeleton act as a frame to which muscles are attached

  • Chapter 8

    Chapter 6 - The Muscular System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The muscular system is the body’s network of tissues that controls movement both of the body and within it. Walking, running, jumping: all these actions propelling the body through space are possible only because of the contraction and relaxation of muscles. These major movements, however, are not the only ones directed by muscular activity. Muscles make it possible to stand, sit, speak, and blink. Even more, without muscles blood would not rush through blood vessels, air would not fill lungs, and food would not move through the digestive system. Therefore we can say that muscles are the machines of the body which allows it to work.

  • Chapter 9

    Chapter 7 - Haemopoietic System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The average human adult has more than 5 litres of blood in his or her body. Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to living cells and takes away their waste products. It also delivers immune cells to fight infections and contains platelets that can form a clot in a damaged blood vessel to prevent blood loss. The liquid component of blood is plasma, which contains water, proteins, nutrients, hormones, electrolytes and metabolic waste products. It is yellow in colour which is due to the presence of bilirrubin (a waste product of haem degradation). Plasma proteins are synthesized by the liver and play a large variety of roles: transport of small molecules, maintaining osmotic pressure and clotting.

  • Chapter 10

    Chapter 8 - Lymph and Lymphatic System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The lymphatic system is often considered part of the cardiovascular system. Excess fluid that leaks out of capillaries to bathe the body’s cells is collected by the vessels of the lymphatic system and returned to the blood. By doing so, the lymphatic system maintains the fluid balance in the body. The lymphatic system further assists the cardiovascular system in absorbing nutrients from the small  intestine. These necessary actions, however, only part of the system’s vitally are important for overall function. It is the body’s main line of defence against foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses. The lymphatic system is responsible for body immunity, filtering harmful substances out of tissue - fluid (which fills the spaces between the cells) before that fluid is returned to the blood and rest of the body. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the immune system.

  • Chapter 11

    Chapter 9 - The Cardiovascular System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    All living organisms need to transport materials from one part of the body to the other. Various materials that need to be transported includes: Food, Oxygen, Water, Carbon dioxide, Waste products, Hormones, etc. All these materials are essential for the organism to survive.

  • Chapter 12

    Chapter 10 - The Digestive System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Food is our fuel, and its nutrients give our bodies’ cells the energy and substances they need to operate. But before food can do that, it must be digested into small pieces the body can absorb and use. The food we eat cannot be used by the body as it is, as animals ingest their food as large, complex molecules that must be broken down into small molecules (monomers) that can then be distributed throughout the body of every cell. This vital function is accomplished by a series of specialized organs that comprise the digestive system. The nutrition for the cells of the body is required to keep them growing and working.

  • Chapter 13

    Chapter 11 - The Respiratory System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    All living cells need a constant supply of oxygen to enable them to carry out essential biochemical reactions of their metabolism. This oxygen supply is provided by blood which also removes CO2 and other waste products. The oxygen comes from the outside air, into which also the CO2 is discharged. The respiratory system provides means of doing this.

  • Chapter 14

    Chapter 12 - The Central Nervous System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Nervous system is the most important rather essential for regulation, control and coordination of body functions. It makes possible a range of adaptive responses to changes (stimuli) in the environment in interests of the individual. This system helps the individual to respond in a coordinated manner to environmental changes, to control various movements and to prolong life by protecting the body against harmful stimuli.

  • Chapter 15

    Chapter 13 - The Excretory System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    During cellular respiration, various metabolic reactions occur in the body leading to formation of various waste products such as carbon dioxide, urea. These waste products are harmful if they are allowed to accumulate in the body. Therefore removal of these waste products is a must. The process of removal of these metabolic wastes from the body is known as excretion. The process of maintaining the right amount of water and ionic balance is called osmoregulation.

  • Chapter 16

    Chapter 14 - The Reproductive System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    All living things reproduce. Reproduction is the process by which organisms make more organisms like their own self. But even though the reproductive system is essential but unlike other body systems it’s not essential to keep an individual alive. The male and female reproductive systems contribute to the events leading to fertilization. Then, the female organs assume responsibility for the developing human, birth, and nursing. The male and female gonads namely testes and ovaries produce sex cells (sperm and ova) and the hormones necessary for the proper development, maintenance, and functioning of the organs of reproduction and other organs and tissues. Each sex has its own unique reproductive system. They are different in shape and structure, but both are specifically designed to produce, nourish, and transport either the egg or sperm.

  • Chapter 17

    Chapter 15 - The Endocrine System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Besides the nervous system, there is another system—the endocrine system which also regulates functioning of various parts of the body. This system along with the nervous system brings about needed coordination.

  • Chapter 18

    Chapter 16 - Sense Organs Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The human body, a beautifully engineered structure has a general plan. We all have arms, legs, a head, ears, and eyes on the outside of our bodies and similar parts on the inside of our bodies like one heart, two lungs, one brain, two kidneys, and one stomach. The nervous system controls the actions and sensations of all the parts of our body by using a complex network of nerves, which carry electrical signals to and from the brain.

  • Chapter 19

    Chapter 17 - The Immune System Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Inside our body there is an amazing protection mechanism called the immune system. It is designed to defend against millions of bacteria, microbes, viruses, toxins and parasites that would love to invade your body. The human immune system is a truly amazing constellation of responses to attacks from outside the body. It has many facets, a number of which can change to optimize the response to these unwanted intrusions. The system is most of the time remarkably effective.

  • Chapter 20

    Index

    The document contains the Index.

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