Sciences, Technology & Medicine

## Industrial Automation and Robotics

The book Industrial Automation and Robotics is specially designed to serve the basic text for undergraduate and postgraduate course in 'Industrial Automation and Robotics' for mechanical, production and industrial engineering students of Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar.
• Publisher: Laxmi Publications
• Language: English
• ISBN : 978-81-318-0592-3
Total Price: 50.83
• Chapter 1

### AUTOMATION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

The word automation comes from the Greek word “automatos”, meaning self-acting. The word automation was coined in the mid-1940s by the U.S. automobile industry to indicate the automatic handling of parts between production machines, together with their continuous processing at the machines. The advances in computers and control systems have extended the definition of automation. By the middle of the 20th century, automation had existed for many years on a small scale, using mechanical devices to automate the production of simply shaped items. However the concept only became truly practical with the addition of the computer, whose flexibility allowed it to drive almost any sort of task.
• Chapter 2

### BASIC LAWS AND PRINCIPLES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

A force is a push or a pull, or more generally anything that can change an object’s speed or direction of motion. The SI unit used to measure force is the Newton (symbol N) it is equivalent to kgm/s2, mathematically:
• Chapter 3

### BASIC PNEUMATIC AND HYDRAULIC SYSTEM Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

A fluid power system is the one that transmits and control energy through the use of pressurized fluid. The term fluid power applies to both hydraulics and pneumatics. With hydraulics, that fluid is a liquid such as oil or water. With pneumatics, the fluid is typically compressed air or inert gas. Hydraulics uses oil or liquid as the medium that cannot be compressed and Pneumatics, which involves gases, uses air or gas as the medium that can be compressed. It is a term, which was created to collect the generation, control, and application of smooth, effective power of pumped or compressed fluids (either liquids or gases). This power is used to provide force and motion to various mechanisms. This force and motion may be in the form of push, pull, rotate, regulate, or drive.
• Chapter 4

### PUMPS AND COMPRESSORS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

The power source is the key element in a fluid-power system. In a pneumatic system the power source is an air compressor, while in hydraulic systems it is a pump. These normally are driven by an electric motor or internal combustion engine. Storage devices are used along with most systems so that they can be made to work more efficiently. In hydraulic systems the storage device is an accumulator; in pneumatic systems it is a tank or receiver. However, most pneumatic systems are used with a receiver. One may define the fluid power generator as means of converting mechanical energy of motor or engine into potential energy of the fluid.
• Chapter 5

### FLUID ACCESSORIES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

FLUID ACCESSORIES
• Chapter 6

### CYLINDERS AND MOTORS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

An actuator is an essential component in all fluid power systems. Actuator comes at last place in a fluid power system. Purpose of all downstream equipment is to convert the fluid power into mechanical power by means of an actuator. The output of fluid power system is through an actuator. The output can be in the form of linear or rotary motion. Actuators that produce linear output are called cylinders and actuators that produce a rotary output are called motors. Figure 6.1 shows a system having two actuators.
• Chapter 7

### CONTROL VALVES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

In a Pneumatic or Hydraulic system the objective is generally to supply power from compressor or pump to the fluid actuator (i.e., motor or cylinder). But as the problem is not same all the times, for example sometimes the stroke of the cylinder is moved very fast whereas sometimes it is required to extend very slowly. The solution to these fluid problems can be obtained by using combination of valves.
• Chapter 8

### CIRCUITS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

A pneumatic or hydraulic system is designed to perform a particular job and it consists of large number of equipments like power unit, service unit, accessories, valves, actuators etc. These components when combined in a logical sequence to get desired output in the form of motion of actuators and shown diagrammatically by using certain standard symbols of components, constitutes a fluid circuit. Fluid engineers in industries design fluid circuits. It is very important to remember the standard symbols of every component along with the function of that component in order to draw a fluid circuit diagram. This chapter focuses on illustrating standard fluid symbols as per ISO standards and explains the methodology to draw a circuit by taking suitable examples.
• Chapter 9

### PNEUMATIC LOGIC CIRCUITS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

Pneumatic systems are well suited to process automation, as they not only provide the necessary force to accomplish the task but also perform control functions. Pneumatic self-contained circuits are possible by which the process can be completely automated. This can be achieved by using simple fluidic elements in a logical manner. The use of special purpose electronic equipment is popular because these are considered the best media to provide control on pneumatic power. Its main functions are to generate a signal, stop and start a process and provide feed back etc., but nowadays pneumatic controls itself has developed to such an extent that it can alone perform all the control related functions. As the problems related to pneumatic controls are sometimes complex, so certain techniques are developed to solve the problems of circuit design that had added simplicity to the process of circuit diagram. These techniques are explained in this chapter with some examples.
• Chapter 10

### FLUIDICS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

Fluidics, branch of engineering and technology is concerned with the development of equivalents of various electronic circuits using movements of fluid rather than movements of electric charge. The basic devices used in fluidics are specially designed valves that can be arranged to act as amplifiers and logic circuits. The principal advantage of fluidic systems is that they can be designed to tolerate conditions under which electronic systems could not possibly operate. For example, a fluidic system could operate in the exhaust of a rocket, using the exhaust as its working fluid. Fluidic systems are also advantageous where the system output is to be a flow of fluid, as in an automobile carburetor.
• Chapter 11

### ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC CONTROLS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

A transducer can be defined as a device capable of converting energy from one form into another. Transducers can be found both at the input as well as at the output stage of a measuring system. The input transducer is called the sensor, because it senses the desired physical quantity and converts it into another energy form. The output transducer is called the actuator; because it converts the energy into a form to which another independent system can react, whether it is a biological system or a technical system. So, for a biological system the actuator can be a numerical display or a loudspeaker to which the visual or aural senses react respectively. For a technical system the actuator could be a recorder or a laser, producing holes in a ceramic material. Humans can interpret the results.
• Chapter 12

### TRANSFER DEVICES AND FEEDERS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, the increasing need for finished goods in large quantities has led engineers to search for and to develop new methods of manufacturing or production. As a result of development in the various manufacturing process, it is now possible to mass-production high-quality durable goods at low cost. One of the most important manufacturing processes is the assembly process that is required when two or more components parts are to be secured together. The history of assembly process development is closely related to the history of the development of mass-production methods. The pioneers of mass production are also the pioneers of modern assembly techniques. Their ideas and concepts have brought significant improvement in the assembly methods employed in high volume production.
• Chapter 13

### ROBOTICS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

The subject of robotics covers many different areas. Robots alone are hardly ever useful. They are used together with other devices, peripherals, and manufacturing machines. They are generally integrated into a system, which as a whole is designed to perform a task or to do an operation. Robots are very powerful elements of today’s industry. They are capable of performing many different tasks and operations precisely and do not require common safety and comfort elements which humans needs. However, it takes much effort and many resources to make a robot function properly. As with humans, robots can do certain things, but not other things. As long as they are designed properly for the intended purpose, they are very useful and will continue to be used. Robotics is the art, knowledge base and the know how of designing, applying and using robots in the human endeavors. Robotics systems consist of not just robots, but also other devices and systems that are used together with the robots to perform the necessary tasks.
• Chapter 14

### ROBOTIC SENSORS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

ROBOTIC SENSORS
• Chapter 15

### ROBOT END EFFECTORS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

The function of robot is to interact with the surroundings. The robot does this by manipulating objects and tools to fulfill a given task. The robot end effector becomes a bridge between the computer controlled arm and the world around it. Earlier industrial robots were used as stand alone machines for painting, spot welding or pick and place work in which parts were moved from one location to another without much attention paid to how the parts were picked up and put down. Nowadays robots are put to work in more challenging applications. The tasks the robot perform may involve assembling parts or fitting them into clamps and fixtures. These tasks place greater demands on the accuracy of arm and the end effector. The actions of robot and gripper determine whether the assembly will go smoothly or the parts will get damaged in the process.
• Chapter 16

### ROBOT PROGRAMMING Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

Robots are becoming more powerful, with more sensors, more intelligence, and cheaper components. As a result robots are moving out of controlled industrial environments into uncontrolled service environments such as homes, hospitals, and workplaces where they perform tasks ranging from delivery services to entertainment. It is this increase in the exposure of robots to unskilled people that requires robots to become easier to program and manage. The flexibility of a robot system comes from its ability to be programmed. How the robot is programmed is a main concern of all robot users. A good mechanical arm can be underutilized if it is too difficult to program. Earlier robot programming was easy because it only required guiding the robot through the sequence of desired movements. To execute complete tasks of the type found in assembly, robot-programming languages had to be introduced. Although the introduction of robot programming languages has represented an important breakthrough in industrial robotics, currently available languages are not easy to use.
• Chapter 17

### APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTS