B io t e c h n olo gy is o n e o f t he f as t es t g rowi ng , and m os t argua b le area o f s c ien c e and t e c hnology in t he 21 s t c en t ury . I n t he las t f ew de c ades B io t e c hnology has e m erged as a f ield wi t h grea t p o t en t ials . F ro m t he de v elo pm en t o f Bt - c o tt on t o Hu m an Geno m e P roje ct , b io t e c hnology has b een p laying a v i t al role in t he es t a b lish m en t o f new m iles t ones in b iologi c al resear c h . T his b oo k “I n t rodu ct ion t o b io t e c hnology ” will b e use f ul f or undergradua t e s t uden t s o f B io t e c hnology, f ro m di ff eren t uni v er- si t ies / c olleges . T his b oo k has b een wri tt en t o m ee t all a c ade m i c re q uire m en t s o f t he s t uden t s as p er t he U.P. T e c hni c al U ni v ersi t y sylla b us in a v ery c o mp rehensi v e and c onsis t en t way . T he au t hor does no t c lai m t his as his inno v a t i v e resear c h wor k. It is jus t a c on c lusion o f t he c o mp ila t ion o f t he resear c hes done b y t he s c ien t is t s in di ff eren t area o f t he b io t e c hnology all o v er t he world . During t he wri t ing o f t his b oo k hel p has b een t a k en f ro m di ff eren t sour c es li k e, re v iew and resear c h p a p ers f ro m re p u t ed journals, so m e s t andard t e xt b oo k s t o re v ise t he k nowledge . T he su b je ct m a tt er and language o f t e xt is v ery si mp le and illus
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-80386-82-9
  • Chapter 1

    I NTRODUCTION Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    What is Biotechnology? The term “Biotechnology ” refers to the use of living organisms or their products to improve human health and the human environment. Prehistoric biotechnologists did this as they used yeast cells to raise bread dough and to ferment alcoholic beverages, and bacterial cells to make cheeses and yogurts and as they bred their strong, productive animals to make even stronger and more productive offspring. Hungarian engineer, Karl Ereky was coined the term biotechnology in 1917, to describe a process for large scale production of pigs. In broad spectrum biotechnology has been defined as “The development and utilization of biological processes, forms and systems for obtaining maximum benefits to man and other forms of life”. Some definitions of biotechnology are given below, which helps the readers to know about its nature and scope
  • Chapter 2

    BIOMOLECULES Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Molecules containing covalently bonded carbon backbone are called organic compounds, they occur in an almost unlimited range. Mainly, biomolecules are organic compounds; we can therefore deduce that the bonding adaptability of carbon was a key factor in the selection of carbon compounds for the molecular machinery of cells during the origin and evolution of living organisms. Biomolecule includes large polymeric molecules such as carbohydrates, lipid, proteins, and nucleic acids. Most biomolecules can be regarded as derivatives of hydrocarbons and their functional groups determine its chemical property. In hydrocarbons, compounds with a covalently linked carbon backbone to which only hy- drogen atoms are bonded. The backbones of hydrocarbons are very stable. Hydrogen atoms may be replaced by a variety of functional groups to yield different families of organic compounds. Typical families of organic compounds are the alcohols, which have one or more hydroxyl groups; amines, which have amino groups; aldehydes and ketones, which have carbonyl group; and carboxylic acids, which have carboxyl groups. Many biomolecules are polyfunctional, containing two or more different kinds of functional groups, each with its own chemical characteristics and reactions. Biomolecules almost never exist within cells as crystals rather; they are dissolved in the cytosol or associated with some other components of the cell
  • Chapter 3

    THE CELL Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The cell (from Latin cellulae : “little rooms”) is the structural and functional units of all living organ- isms. The living matter is composed of mainly six elements like; carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitro- gen, phosphorus and sulpher. These elements mutually constitute about 90% of the dry weight of the human body. Several other important elements are also found in the cells. These includes Ca, K, Fe, I, F, Zn, Na, Cl, Mg, Cu, Mo, Co and Se. Carbon is the most leading and versatile element of life. It possesses a unique property to form infinite number of compounds. This is attributed to the ability of carbon to form stable covalent bonds and C-C chains of unlimited length. It is estimated that about 90% of compounds found in living system contain carbon. All living cells that are capable of reproducing themselves have certain basic features in common
  • Chapter 4

    BIOINFORMATICS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Bioinformatics is the discipline of quantitative analysis of information relating to biological mac- romolecules with the help of computers. We use computer programs to make inferences from the data archives of modern molecular biology, to make connections amid them and to get useful and interesting predictions.
  • Chapter 5

    GENOMICS Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Genomics is the application of the technology of high throughput molecular biology to many problems. It is the field of genetics that attempts to understand the content, organization, and function of genetic information contained in entire genomes. Genomics includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping efforts. Genomics consists of two corresponding fields: structural genomics and functional genomics. The determina- tion of organization and sequence of the genetic information contained within a genome is known as Structural genomics , and functional genomics characterizes the function of sequences explain by structural genomics. A third area, comparative genomics, compares the gene content, function, and organization of genomes of various organisms. The field of genomics is at the cutting edge of modern biology; information resulting from research in this field has made significant contribu- tions to agriculture, human health, and various other areas. It has also provided gene sequences essential for producing medically important proteins through recombinant DNA technology. Com- parisons of genome sequences from different organisms are leading to an improved perceptive of development and the history of life. Before embarking in detail study about genomics we should know about gene, and genome. A genome is the sum total of all an individual organism’s genes. Thus, genomics is the study of all the genes of a cell, or tissue, at the DNA (genotype), mRNA, or protein (proteome) levels. In 1920, H. Winkler coined the term genome to describe ‘the complete set of chromosomal and extra chromosomal genes of an organism or virus’. The term genomics is used primarily by Thomas Roderick in 1986, after a gap of 66 years, and he describes it as s scientific discipline of mapping, sequencing and analyzing the genome.

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