The purpose of experimental pharmacology is to always look for any drug that can produce a statistically significant difference in physiology of living system. In an easy to understand language, a pharmacologist or student of pharmacology is always looking for any drug treatment that is beneficial to human physiology. Such useful drug treatment may be helpful to humans in three main ways: (a) It can help to improve the functions of our body organ/tissue/cell; (b) it can help cure a disease or any discomfort in our body, and/or (c) it can help to diagnose a disease or any discomfort in our body. Before making any positive comment on usefulness of any drug treatment, a pharmacologist needs to test this treatment on living body. The useful activity of treatment is called as Desired Effect or Desired Activity. The basic need is that the pharmacologist must clearly know the site in body (organ or tissue/cell), where the desired activity is required. After the site of desired effect is clear, it is necessary to bring this treatment in contact with site of desired effect. After this, a pharmacologist or student always wishes to observe the difference, produced by treatment in living body. In case of preclinical pharmacology, this living body may be of any “animal”. Whether a significant difference is produced or not in animal, a comparison is made between animal, treated with treatment and untreated animal. After this, a suitable test of statistical analysis is selected to compare the observations (data) collected from treated animal and untreated animal.
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-85750-93-9
  • Chapter 1


    This document contains the preface of the book.

  • Chapter 2


    This document contains the contents of the book.

  • Chapter 3

    Chapter 1- An outline of a pharmacological experiment Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Pharmacological experiment means testing of drug(s) on living system. At laboratory scale, living system means sub-human species and/or their body parts, organs, tissues or cells.

  • Chapter 4

    Chapter 2- Care and storage of laboratory animals Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    In this unit, the students may briefly learn step-by-step scientific treatment of laboratory animals; from procurement of animals, their storage and care, their stabilization and adaptation in laboratory conditions, documentation of drug treatments.

  • Chapter 5

    Chapter 3- Calculation and preparation of drug dose for laboratory small animals Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    A student receives a drug in the form of solid, powder, liquid (with appropriately mentioned strength of solution). Another form of drug that is utilized at laboratory scale is in the form of formulations or marketed forms, i.e. popularly called as injections. This form is sometimes preferred by students because of its easy availability. These ampoules are available in certain strengths. Suitable examples have been mentioned to easily understand and then prepare the required dose for animal in a particular experiment.

  • Chapter 6

    Chapter 4- Expressions in laboratory documentation Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Student is required to mention appropriate species of animal(s) being used in the laboratory. For example, for mice, Mus musculus is commonly used species. For rats, Rattus norvegicus is commonly used species. This helps to document that on which species, the laboratory data has been collected and then may be used for reproducibility on same species and this data may not be reproducible on other species.

  • Chapter 7

    Chapter 5- An introduction to experimental pharmacology Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The science deals which deals with the study of effect of drugs on the living system. Here, it is necessary to understand the meaning of (a) living system and (b) drug.

  • Chapter 8

    Chapter 6- Pharmacological methods in experiments on the whole body of an animal intact animal experimentation Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Any pharmacological investigation should follow a systematic approach, so that the experimental procedure adopted is easily carried out and it should involve minimum number of animals, suitable animal species and suitable parameters should be observed, so that the results are reliable.

  • Chapter 9

    Chapter 7- Pharmacological methods in experiments on isolated tissue of animal isolated tissue experimentation Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    On whole animal body different chemicals and/or different procedures are tested and following points are observed:
    • Animal behavior
    • Change in functions of body organs
    • Animal physiology
    • Change in levels of bio-chemicals like glucose, cholesterol etc.

  • Chapter 10

    Chapter 8- Indian regulatory guidelines on animal experimentation Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The Animal Use and Experimentation are regulated by Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate, Government of India under an Act of Government of India, called “Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 amended 1982 and its rules called “Animal Breeding Rules, 1998. This Act demands that animals should not suffer from undue pain and discomfort.

  • Chapter 11

    Chapter 9- Concepts of blood sampling and drug administration in small animals Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    Collection of blood from small laboratory animals is necessary for a wide range of scientific research and there are a number of efficient methods available for that. The method of blood collection should be described in the protocol approved by the Institute animal ethics committee.

  • Chapter 12

    Chapter 10- OECD guidelines for toxicity studies Price 0.11  |  0.11 Rewards Points

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an inter-governmental organisation, established in 1961. The purpose of his organization is to discuss issues of common interests, make uniform policies among member countries and work together for solution of international problems.

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