This volume contains papers presented at The 2013 International Conference on Wireless Networks (ICWN'13). Their inclusion in this publication does not necessarily constitute endorsements by editors or by the publisher .
Additional Info
  • Publisher: Laxmi Publications
  • Language: English
  • ISBN : 978-93-84872-18-2
  • Chapter 1

    FPGA-Based Implementation of a Hybrid DSFFH Spread-Spectrum Transceiver Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In recent years there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct-sequence modulation with "fast" frequency hopping, denoted hybrid  (DS/FFH) ,wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

  • Chapter 2

    An Innovative Design of Infant Rooming-in Tracking Mechanism - The Experience of Cathay General Hospital in Taiwan Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The promotion of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in 2001 in Taiwan. To increase the ratio of requesting rooming-in, baby-friendly hospitals should prevent the mistake of identifying puerpera and infant and assure the safety of newborn babies. To reach the goal of facilitating the rooming-in care, we propose a tracing system using active RFID-tag and RSSI method to identify and monitor neonates. This system is implemented in Cathay general hospital in Taipei. With the integration of wireless devices and information technology, this system can effectively avoid the situation like stolen baby and switched baby and up to the standard certified by BFHI. The nursing department can easily arrange routine nursing works and increase the quality of nursing cares.

  • Chapter 3

    Towards Spectrum Resource Management in Cognitive Radio Networks via Intrusion Detection and Response Model Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Cognitive Radio Network (CRNs) was innovated as a means to solve the problem of spectrum scarcity. CRNs are able to detect and utilize vacant spectrum by means of dynamic spectrum access (DSS) without interfering to the primary licensed users. This has led to the increase in vulnerabilities and threats to the CRNs. This research paper can be used as an introduction to the IDRM and analysis. It is hoped that the design and analysis of this new approach will facilitate future study and implementation of this novel security architecture for spectrum resource management in CRNs.

  • Chapter 4

    A Cyclostationarity-Based Spectrum Sensing Scheme for Cognitive Radios With Dynamic Primary User Signals Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper addresses a cyclostationarity-based spectrum sensing scheme for cognitive radios in dynamic primary user (PU) traffic environments where the PU might randomly depart or arrive during the sensing period. At first, the spectrum sensing problem in dynamic PU traffic environments is formulated as a binary hypothesis testing problem. Then, a test statistic for spectrum sensing is derived by applying an estimate of spectral coherence function of the PU signal to the generalized likelihood ratio. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme exhibits a better spectrum sensing performance than that of the conventional scheme based on the energy detection in the presence of dynamic PU signals.

  • Chapter 5

    Spectrum Detection and Spectrum Decision in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Intelligent Mobile Agents Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Cognitive radios are radios that improve spectrum efficiency and spectrum utilization by operating on unused spectrum channels in their neighborhood. These unused channels are detected through spectrum sensing, which must be performed to ensure the absence of the primary user, before a cognitive radio can utilize the channel. However, spectrum detection is a challenge to radios due to bandwidth constraints imposed on them and also due to degraded channel conditions such as multipath and shadowing. Secondly, these unused channels show different characteristics, and therefore, an appropriate channel needs to be chosen based on the characteristics it exhibits. In this paper, we propose algorithms and implementations for an Intelligent Mobile Agent-based approach for spectrum detection and decision, whereby, mobile agents are injected into the network to perform these two management functionalities, thus enabling the radios to utilize the channel without having to intermittently stop to check for the reappearance of the primary user and ensure non-interference to the primary user.

  • Chapter 6

    Study and Analysis of Basic Modulation Scheme in Wireless Environment using USRP and Matlab Simulink Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral) provide comparatively inexpensive hardware platform for software radio and is used by research labs, universities. They connect to a host computer through a USB or Giga Ethernet link which the host-based software (Matlab) uses to control the USRP hardware and transmit/receive data. The main objective of the paper is to make a performance comparison of the basic modulation scheme (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK)) using the USRP .An analysis and study is done on the effect of Channel impairment (varying Frequency offset) and Channel Condition (Eb/No of the AWGN) on the transmission Quality (Bit Error Rate and Output Produced at the Receiver), using Matlab Simulink software interface. Then the AWGN is replaced with the real wireless environment using USRP and further study is done on the effect of varying Transmitter gain on the Transmission Quality for both the modulation schemes. Finally, the effect of an interfering USRP on the transmission quality is also analyzed.

  • Chapter 7

    Livestock Disease Control System using RFID and WSN Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This thesis collects stock information, cattle shed's facility information and video information through RFID and video treatment devices according to a livestock farmhouse with a RFID/WSN based livestock disease control system in order to prevent spread of stock diseases that are taking sick recently in the country. In addition, as the spread of stock diseases can occur through movement of vehicles, this thesis is tracing movement of feed, milk collection and human waste vehicles by utilizing RFID/GPS and manages the respective information integrated through middleware. And the system was composed to enable quick handling through monitoring and information analysis at a monitoring system for preventing spread of stock diseases in case of generation of stock diseases or abnormality of a stock farmhouse's facility.

  • Chapter 8

    A DS-UWB Radar System Using a Short-Length PN Sequence Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this paper, we propose a direct sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) radar system using a short-length
    pseudo noise (PN) sequence. The proposed DS-UWB radar reduces the correlation processing time by averaging out the noise in the correlator outputs, and thus, employs a short-length PN sequence unlike the conventional DS-UWB radar systems using multiple variable-length PN sequences. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed DS-UWB radar estimates the distance between the radar and an object with a shorter correlation processing time while providing a better estimation performance compared with the conventional DS-UWB radar systems.

  • Chapter 9

    Evaluation of OFDM-OQAM as Spectrum Sensing Technique Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Spectrum sensing is a key function of dynamic spectrum access. Filter bank-based multi-carrier communication techniques have been proposed as potential candidates for the physical layer of secondary users since they can be utilized for both data communication and spectrum sensing with no additional cost. In this paper we evaluate one of these techniques, OFDM-OQAM, from the point of view of its probability of misdetection as a function of the SNR, with the false alarm probability and the sensing time as parameters. It is showed that OFDM-OQAM outperforms the periodogram for low SNR values under implicit multipath fading. Not significant differences were found in the performance of OFDM-OQAM under simulated  (e\xplicit) multipath fading when compared with the AWGN only case.

  • Chapter 10

    Study on the Livestock Activity Monitoring System for Livestock Estrus and Disease Forecasting Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper proposes a livestock activity monitoring system that will allow the collection and monitoring of livestock activity information by using wireless sensor networks technology. In the proposed system, sensor nodes are attached to livestock to establish WSN and livestock activities are measured to collect and monitor the vital information of livestock, and the information on livestock activity change according to disease or estrus that is stored in the database is compared with the collected information on livestock activity to notify the producer in real-time of any values that exceed or fall short of the standard values. Therefore, the proposed system could diagnose estrus and disease conditions of livestock in early stages based on locations and activity information of livestock collected from wireless sensor nodes, and it is expected to improve productivity of livestock and to minimize damage of livestock diseases through it.

  • Chapter 11

    Low Latency Transmissions of Prioritized Sensor Data Messages Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Wireless sensor networks are for sensor data transmission from a wireless sensor node to a sink node with help of intermediate wireless sensor nodes which forwards sensor data messages along a wireless multihop transmission route. For achieving shorter transmission delay in transmissions of high priority sensor data messages, various priority-based transmission methods for 1-hop and multihop wireless transmissions have been proposed. However, most of the methods do not consider longer transmission delay of low-priority sensor data message transmissions. This paper proposes a novel method for reduction of transmission delay of low priority sensor data messages by buffering them into wireless sensor nodes nearer to the sink node even though they are out of their original wireless multihop transmission route under a condition that they never interfere the transmissions of high priority sensor data message transmissions. Simulation experiments show that the proposed method achieves 3.49%–12.2% reduction of transmission delay of low priority sensor data messages. In cases that the sink nodes are on or near the edge of the wireless sensor network, higher performance improvement is achieved. Thus, the proposed method is better to be applied to such sensor network.

  • Chapter 12

    Security in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Coalition Games with Transferable Payoff Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this paper, we investigate the impacts of using game theory in recognizing malicious nodes and voltage loss in a wireless sensor network. All nodes in the wireless sensor network are divided into several clusters, where in each cluster one node acts as the cluster head. All cluster heads are in charge of receiving and forwarding packets to each other and to the base station. Here, we study the model of a coalition game. One primitive of this model is the collection of sets of joint actions that each group of players (clusters) can take independently of the remaining players. Our goal is maximizing the correct percentage of malicious nodes while minimizing the voltage loss.

  • Chapter 13

    An Energy Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper presents an innovative hierarchical clustering protocol for wireless sensor networks. In networks that mainly apply multi-hop communications, the huge amount energy consumed by relay tasks of nodes near the sink node cause premature network death, and, so, the lifetime of these nodes needs to be improved efficiently in order to prolong the duration of network service. The aim of the proposed hierarchical clustering design is to minimize energy dissipation difference among these nodes. Furthermore, the hierarchical clustering mechanism reduces transmission delay. The energy efficiency of the proposed algorithm is verified through simulation and it demonstrates that the network lifetime has been significantly extended by 45% compared with LEACH.

  • Chapter 14

    A Cluster Based Delay Tolerant MAC Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The propagation speed of an acoustic signal is much slower than the speed of a terrestrial radio signal due to the physical characteristics of an underwater acoustic channel. This large delay can impact the throughput of the channel. There is also a very high delay variance which presents unique challenges to the designs of efficient protocols. The inconsistent delay renders many traditional communication protocols insufficient since they rely on accurate estimations of the round trip time (RTT) between two communication nodes. We presented a unique approach to develop a Cluster based delay-tolerant protocol (CBDTP) to address these problems by predicating a value for a sensor node if its data were not received at the sink node instead of having the sensor node retransmit its data. The CBDTP can reduce data traffic over the networks and uses the network resource more efficiently. In this paper we improved our CBDTP protocol by introduced a self-adoptive algorithm at MAC layer protocol to better address the inconsistent delay problems. It improves the performance of CBDTP protocol in a dynamic deployment environment.

  • Chapter 15

    A Multi-hop Source Routing based on the Topology Matrix in Cluster Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Sensors have limited resources in sensor networks, so efficient use of energy is important. Representative clustering methods, LEACH, LEACHC, TEEN generally use direct transmission methods from cluster headers to the sink node to pass collected data. If clusters are located at a long distance from the sink node, the cluster headers exhaust a lot of energy in order to transfer the data. As a consequence, the life of sensors is shorten and re-clustering is needed. In the process of clustering, sensor nodes consume some energy and the energy depletion of the cluster heads meets another energy exhaustion. Many routing studies have been for saving energy. Generally, sensor nodes exchange routing information with each other in order to create a routing table. Due to this, a large amount of bandwidth is consumed and a large overhead is occurred. In this paper, we propose a Multi-hop Source Routing(MSR) method without routing tables in cluster sensor networks. This method uses the topology matrix which presents cluster topology. The experiment results show that proposed routing method is energy-efficient that any other routing method based on the routing table in clustered sensor networks.

  • Chapter 16

    Study on Wireless Sensor Network Based Livestock Farm Integrated Control System Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper proposes livestock farm integrated control system based on wireless sensor network. The conventional livestock farm control monitoring system based on the WSN realizes a higher value-added livestock farmhouse, however, it has a disadvantage that is difficult to carry out the integrated control of multiple livestock farmhouses by a system that could use for a single livestock farmhouse. Therefore, the proposed system stores the environmental information received from the individual livestock farm management server of the integrated livestock farm control system based on the distributed processing platform in a DB, carries out the integrated management and comparative analysis for the collected environmental information, and provides information on the integrated environmental information and the abnormal symptom of the livestock farm through the text service and the GUI of devices that could communicate when there is an abnormal symptom in the livestock farm. It could carry out the integrated management of individual livestock farm by applying the proposed integrated livestock farm control system based on the distributed processing platform, and could quickly cope with a dangerous situation of the livestock farm by informing it in real time when there is an abnormal symptom.

  • Chapter 17

    Hierarchical Polling-based MAC Scheme for Wireless Body Sensor Network Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    A hierarchical polling-based access scheme for Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) is proposed in this paper. The proposed access scheme is structured in hierarchy to collect data from sensor nodes inserted in human body. In first level of hierarchy the sensor nodes are divided into groups and sensor nodes of each group communicate with a sink node which collects data by using polling technique. In second level, the sink nodes communicate with master node which collects data by also using polling technique. The sensor nodes from first level are provided with only single buffer to store data and intending to save energy by using small capacity buffer. The sink nodes have larger buffers and the master node uses exhaustive polling technique. The performance of the proposed scheme is studied using mathematical models known in the literature. The numerical analyses show that the proposed scheme can be efficient for WBSN application.

  • Chapter 18

    An Overhearing Video Transmission for Wireless Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    To transmit multimedia data on WMSNs(Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks), it is required to use efficient protocols to reduce power consumption. This paper presents an efficient protocol to transfer multimedia data by overhearing messages of nodes and by transmitting next packets during the unused time interval. The proposed method is verified its performance by simulations and experiments. The results shows that the transmission rate of the proposed method 50% higher than that of End-to-end protocol. Also the transmission time is reduced up to 50%. The results of real measurement are very close to those of simulations. The proposed algorithm shows very good performance compared with the End-to-End transmission method. The transmission performance of the proposed method is double that of the Endto-End transmission. The experiment results show that average of the success rate is 93.78 %.

  • Chapter 19

    On Smart Wireless Sensor Networks Directions and Challenges Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    With the advancement of sensing technology and the increasing computational power of processors, there is an increased interest in using large, dynamically distributed wireless sensor networks (WSN) in a variety of areas. In recent years, WSN technology has proven to be beneficial in health and environmental monitoring, military applications, and many other fields. Since WSN can both sense the environment and apply algorithms to process the data, more real-time and useful information can be gathered from the physical world than using traditional sensing systems. This paper will explore the challenges faced by WSNs and how they can be addressed, from hardware and software aspects to the security of the systems.

  • Chapter 20

    Clustered QoS Routing Protocol Based on Traffic Classification and Cost Expectation in Wireless Sensor Network Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Quality of Service (QoS) is one of research hotspots in WSN, in which routing protocol plays a key role. On the basis of analyzing the existing QoS routing protocols, a clustered routing protocol based on traffic classification and cost expectation (CRPBCC) is proposed. In CRPBCC, packets are classified into ordinary packets and the important ones. Nodes form clusters and data fusion is carried out by cluster heads. Different data packets select the best route according to different cost expectations and queuing mechanisms. Besides, the congestion feedback mechanism is applied in CRPBCC protocol. Simulation results show that CRPBCC can effectively prolong the network lifetime, increase the packets delivery ratio and realize rapid and reliable transmission of important packets.

  • Chapter 21

    Delay-Efficient Data Collection with Dynamic Traffic Patterns in Wireless Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Data collection is one of the most important applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where the data are gathered from sensor nodes to the base station. To reduce energy consumption, the sensor node may not report every sensed data sample to the base station. Thus, the network traffic of continuous data collection application often varies unpredictably over different sampling intervals. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient scheme, Delay-Efficient Traffic Adaptive (DETA), for collecting data from sensor nodes with minimum delay according to the traffic load. The DETA scheme minimizes data collection delay by constructing a delay-efficient, collision-free schedule, and by using an adaptive mechanism to enable every node to self-adapt to the change of traffic. The simulation results show that our proposed solution could significantly decrease data collection delay and obtain reasonable values of energy consumption compared with other schemes.

  • Chapter 22

    Distributed Positioning and Tracking in Cluster-based Wireless Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this paper, distributed positioning and tracking schemes for cluster-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are presented. We focus on the cases with overlapping cluster regions, which are particularly useful in applications involving inter-cluster communications, time synchronization, and target tracking. In overlapping clustering, the duplicated correlated data between adjacent clusters may, however, impair the performance in information fusion. To tackle the problem, a geometric formation with regularly distributed overlapping clusters is used for situation analysis. Each cluster is composed of one cluster head (CH) and a number of normal sensors. Different operating modes are defined for the CH and normal sensors. To resolve the problem of correlated data, Cholesky decomposition is adopted to decorrelate the measurement noises. In addition, extended information filtering (EIF) is modified for distributed target estimation. The simulations and results show that the proposed distributed schemes with the designated mode settings attain good efficiency and accuracy in target tracking.

  • Chapter 23

    A Study on the Estrus Detection System of the Sow Using the Wireless Sensor Network Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper proposed WSN-based estrus monitoring system for stalled sows, which detects estrus of a sows in real time using wireless sensor network and notifies optimum time of insemination to PC and smart device of a user. The need for detect the estrus cycle has been increased in pig industry as it has the direct effect on productivity and earnings. If failed to detect in timely manner, it may cause a huge loss. The proposed system is one that detects estrus by measuring sow's activity in real time with an accelerometer sensor to transmits it to the server, which analyzes the information received and then informs whether or not to be in heat to PC and smart devices of users. This system is expected to improve rate of return for livestock farms by detecting the exact optimum time of insemination of a sows and minimizing the number of non-production days.

  • Chapter 24

    Novel Model for Vehicle s Traffic Monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks between Major Cities in South Africa Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    With the growing number of vehicles and users, monitoring road and traffic within cities is becoming a huge research challenge. With the urban scale enlargement coupled with the exponential growth in the number of vehicles, South Africa (SA) is not an exception. Consequently, congestion and pollution (i.e. noise and air) have become the order of the day. Road congestion and traffic-related pollution are well-known for huge negative socio-economic impact on several economics worldwide. For over a decade now, the number of cars on SA roads has increased tremendously and the road transport profile is characterized by its sizeable and total dependence on cars particularly in the highly developed urban areas alongside cycling, and other public transport. This has brought about increasing congestion in public roads which poses a serious problem not only for SA, but many countries of the world and has to be contained. Several solution methods have been proposed requiring dedicated hardware such as GPS devices and accelerometers in vehicles or camera on roadside and near traffic signals. Most other works in literature concentrated on lane system and orderly traffic, which is common in developing world and in some cases, the traffic is highly chaotic and unpredictable. The situation in SA cities like Johannesburg and Pretoria are not different. All there methods are costly and human require much effort. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel model that is cost effective, requires less human intervention, but uses wireless sensor networks application to monitor traffic in major SA cities.

  • Chapter 25

    Dynamic TDMA Sense Window Prediction for Wireless Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this paper, we develop a TDMA sleep scheduling technique forWireless Sensor Networks using a queuing theoretic approach. We consider the scenario where TDMA listening by wireless sensor cluster head wastes energy when the nodes send data in low rates. To save energy consumption we propose a technique of a traffic aware TDMA sensing window which allows the cluster head antenna to go to sleep mode after listening for a portion of the TDMA time slot if there are no data traffic arrivals. We model the traffic patterns from each node using a discrete time Markov chain and the next arrival probability is calculated based on the patterns of past traffic arrivals. This allows us to accurately predict co-related data traffic behaviors in wireless sensor networks. Hence we define the TDMA sense window size proportional to the predicted probability of traffic arrivals.

  • Chapter 26

    Dynamic Cost with Multi-Criteria Decision Method MCDM for Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Wireless networks are designed to operate independently without any cooperation. With the many existing inconveniences of 3G networks, operators are persuaded to switch to heterogeneous access networks. This reduces the costs that operators should pay in order to move to 4G and thus make use of the existing networks infrastructures, to come up with heterogeneous environment where multiple wireless technologies coexist. This paper shows how networks users will be able to select their networks through a user-friendly interface where criteria such as the offered throughput and cost are listed. Networks operators should make continuous modifications to the networks listed criteria such as the offered throughput and cost in order to maintain all the available networks working properly. We simulate the intervention using a dynamic cost that the operators can perform on the networks; whereby, the performance parameters, and the operators’ profits are taken into consideration along with the users’ satisfaction.

  • Chapter 27

    The iTrust Local Reputation System for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The iTrust search and retrieval network serves as a trustworthy medium for the distribution of information, that addresses the problems of censorship and filtering of information. To combat subversive behavior of nodes that might undermine the trustworthiness of iTrust, a reputation system is needed. The iTrust reputation system presented in this paper detects and blacklists malicious nodes. It minimizes the expectation of cooperation between nodes through local reputations based solely on direct observations of the nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that local neighborhoods provide better malicious node detection and blacklisting than does the entire network, which is particularly appropriate for mobile ad-hoc networks.

  • Chapter 28

    Supporting Secure Scalable End-To-End QoS in 4G Mobile Wireless Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    With the convergence of the Internet and wireless communications, mobile wireless networks and data services are undergoing tremendous evolutionary growth that has seen the development of fourth generation (4G) mobile wireless access technologies based on an all- IP platform. However, major challenges in the development of such heterogeneous network infrastructure such as quality of service (QoS) provisioning and network security services for mobile users’ communication flows, among others still exists. In this paper an integrated architectural view and methodology for QoS and security support in 4G mobile wireless networks, which integrates QoS signaling with secure enhanced evolved packet system authentication and key agreement (SE-EPS AKA protocol) is presented. The success of 4G mobile wireless networks depends on the prudent deployment of homogeneously designed, highspeed, secure, multiservice IP-centric integrated multimedia, voice and data networks.

  • Chapter 29

    Impact of Compression and Encryption Methods for Software Architectures in Data-Oriented Mobile Applications Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mobile applications have evolved to become extensions of enterprise applications and systems that often interact with remote data sources and databases. Two software architectural approaches have emerged as the primary ways to develop mobile applications accessing remote data sources: client-agent-server and client-interceptserver. Both make use of middleware with the main difference being in the way agent components are used. Our previous compared the performance of these architectural approaches under differing sizes of data retrieved and with and without caching at the middleware. In this paper we compare these architectures in similar data scenarios but looking at the impact of data compression and encryption on the performance of the two approaches. Statistical analysis shows that the client-agent-approach generally performs better, though not in all circumstances. The results of this research provide useful guidelines for developing mobile applications needing to connect to remote databases.

  • Chapter 30

    Locally Complementary Multi-Path Routing in a MANET Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    MANETs (Mobile Ad hoc NETworks) are drawing interest because it can provide a means of communication when an existing public network has been damaged by a disaster, or in areas where there is no fixed-line network available. For audio/video communication to be feasible in a MANET, the routing method used must provide high real-time performance. This paper proposes a locally complementary multi-path routing protocol, which can reduce the size of the network section for which route restoration is required in the event of a disaster. This makes it possible to achieve high real-time performance and maintain existing connections, thereby avoiding interruptions in audio/video communication. Specifically, this protocol secures a spare route for every two hops on the main route. Two alternative methods for securing spare routes are presented: an independent route securing method and a simultaneously route securing method. These as well as AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) have been compared in terms of the number of control packets generated. The simultaneous route securing method has been built into a MANET emulator, and the percentage of successful establishment of the initial routes has been assessed.

  • Chapter 31

    A Sequence Frequency Reuse Scheme for Coordinated Multi-Point Transmission in LTE-A Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    OFDMA communication technology becomes for the next

  • Chapter 32

    Comparative Study of Proactive and Reactive Geographical Routing Protocols for MANET Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In the world of mobile wireless communication, it has become more and more important to establish networks that are not only capable of delivering information across vast distances but can also perform this task efficiently. Many routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) rely on additional information such as geographical locations obtained via GPS to improve the overall performance of the route discovery process. This paper is an extension of our previous study of location-aided MANET routing protocols. In this paper we continue our research endeavors by comparing the performance of several AODV-based reactive, location-aided MANET routing protocols and Geographical Routing Protocol (GRP), an OPNET implementation of a proactive, geographical location-based routing protocol for MANET.

  • Chapter 33

    An Email-Based Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using OPNET Modeler Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mobile Ad HOC Networks (MANETs) are becoming very popular in the world of wireless networks and telecommunication. MANETs consist of mobile nodes which are able to communicate with each other without the need of any infrastructure or centralised administration.

  • Chapter 34

    Characterization and Evaluation Temporal Properties of Real and Synthetic Datasets for DTN Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Node’s movements play a significant role in disseminating messages in the intermittently connected mobile ad-hoc network. In such networks scenarios traditional end-to-end paths do not exist; mobility creates opportunities for nodes to connect and communicate when they are encountered. A series of encountering opportunities spread a message among many nodes and eventually deliver to the destination. Further improvements to the performance of message delivery can come from exploiting temporal properties of intermittent networks. It is modeled as time varying graphs, where, moving nodes are considered as vertices and contact opportunity to other nodes as an edge. The paper discusses about characterization and design of the temporal algorithm. Then, evaluating temporal distance and temporal centrality of real and synthetic data sets. Such, characterization can help in accurately understanding dynamic behavior and taking appropriate routing decision.

  • Chapter 35

    Evaluation of Modulo in a Multi-Channel 80211 Wireless Network Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Since the introduction of the IEEE 802.11 standard, researchers have moved from the concept of deploying a single channel and proposed the utilisation of multiple channels within a wireless network. This new scheme posed a new problem, the ability to coordinate the various channels and the majority of the proposed works focus on mechanisms that would reduce the adjacent channel interference caused by the use of partially overlapping channels. The proposed idea in this paper borrows the concept of network segregation, firstly introduced for security purposes in wired networks, by dividing a wireless network into smaller independent subnetworks and in collaboration with a channel assignment, the Modulo. Modulo defines a set of rules that nodes should obey to when they transmit data. The utilization of multiple channels under the guidance of Modulo for each subnetwork, proves to improve the performance of an ad-hoc network even in noisy environments.

  • Chapter 36

    Development of Outage Tolerant FSM Model for Fading Channels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Finite State Markov (FSM) models for fading channels need to be revised for more realistic design of emerging mobile networks and their performance evaluation. In this paper a Outage Tolerant FSM Model (OTFSM) is proposed based on concept of certain tolerable outage times, which are defined as ‘Tolerance time’. These are the short duration of outage time which is considered as satisfactory times over the channel. In this paper, a statistical approach is being presented for the development of OTFSM model and evaluation of its fading parameters such as Average Fade Duration (AFD), outage probability and outage frequency. Derived results may be used for higher layer performance evaluation and selection of physical layer parameters of wireless networks.

  • Chapter 37

    An Intelligent Approach For Improving Energy Efficiently in Smart Grids Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This article proposes a platform that integrates wireless sensor networks and cloud computing for remote monitoring of electric energy consumption by means of any device (e.g., smartphones, tablets and notebooks) that has access to the Internet. The solution proposed is different from other available solutions in at least three respects: it employs an intelligent method for monitoring electric energy consumption; it uses Machine Learning techniques to analyze the behavior of electronic equipment; and it sends intelligent alerts to the device when an anomaly arises. The results of the experiments showed the efficiency of the method in detecting novelties in electronic e

  • Chapter 38

    An Energy Efficient and Minimum Latency Routing Protocol for Multihop WSNs Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper presents a novel multihop routing protocol, which aims to simultaneously minimize data aggregation latency and maximize network lifetime. The protocol constructs a dynamic greedy growing tree (GGT) from sink to all sensor nodes. Latency and energy consumption minimization priority rules are applied to node selection at each step in the tree construction process. Latency minimization rules are applied first, and then energy consumption priority rules are applied to break any ties. The tree is constructed periodically to balance the energy consumption of nodes across the network. Priority Rules consist of the number of interfering neighbors, residual energy of senders and receivers, link quality, and load balancing. MATLAB simulations show that the proposed Energy Efficient Greedy Growing Tree (EEGGT) has the same latency performance as basic GGT. However, EEGGT significantly outperforms basic GGT, Static GGT (SGGT) and Dynamic GGT (DGGT) in terms of network lifetime.

  • Chapter 39

    Enhancing Productivity of Costs and Energy through VNC and SAN Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    SAN, which stands for Storage Area Network, is a data sharing architecture widely used for its great security and access as well as its compatibility with a variety of operating systems. In view of the importance of networks optimization, this system has recently shifted from a sole data sharing to resource sharing. As the reduction of energy consumption has become a vitally important issue worldwide, Iran has also taken appropriate actions in this regard which subsequently embraced by different organizations. A great deal of energy consumption reduction and costs cutbacks could be achieved through utilizing Virtual Network Computing in the system. The present article presents procedures for reducing energy consumption.

  • Chapter 40

    Enhancement Energy Efficient Routing in WSN Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The emergence of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is essentially toward the miniaturization and ubiquity of computing devices. Sensor networks are composed of thousands of resource constrained sensor nodes and also some resourced base stations are there. The route of each message destined to the base station is really crucial in terms network lifetime. This paper introduces a new routing algorithm based on minimum energy and residual battery algorithms. Using energy threshold to switch routing path.

  • Chapter 41

    A Fuzzy Approach in Single Relay Selection for Cooperative Communication Based on Signal Strength and Residual Energy Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Cooperative communication is a vital area of research in wireless sensor networks due to its advantages for spatial diversity. Specifically, selective single relay cooperative communication is an area of vast research interest due to its simplicity and practicality. In this paper, we propose a selective single relay cooperative communication scheme for wireless sensor networks which adapts power control and considers residual energy when electing potential relay nodes. Based on the received signal strength of the RTS/CTS messages, potential relay nodes compute the required transmission energy needed for data transmission from the source to itself and from itself to the destination. The required transmission energy from source to destination is also obtained through the MAC layer signaling. Node with the minimum transmission energy and highest residual energy is then elected as a relay for cooperative communication based on a fuzzy inference system. Our simulation results confirm that our scheme achieves significant energy savings in data transmission and enhances network lifetime.

  • Chapter 42

    Neural Networks for Admission Control in Wireless Mesh Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper presents the results of a research concerning admission control (AC) on Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). At first, there is an introduction to WMNs and its problems. Later, topics as quality of service (QoS) and admission control en WMNs are presented, alluding to neural networks as an alternative to achieve the admission control in communication networks. Next, the results of different conduced test using a network simulator are presented to deem admission control under diverse scenarios in the same test topology, in order to quantify throughput of the network traffic. Lastly, both results are collate, those from using the traditional techniques and those with neural networks, based on the results of this work, the conclusions are drawn.

  • Chapter 43

    An Unambiguous Correlation Function With a Sharp Main-Peak for BOC Signal Tracking Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    This paper proposes an unambiguous binary offset carrier (BOC) correlation function based on a combination of partial correlations composing the BOC autocorrelation, which has a main-peak sharper than those of the conventional unambiguous correlation functions, thus providing a better tracking performance. From numerical results, it is confirmed that the proposed unambiguous correlation function provides a significant tracking performance improvement over the conventional unambiguous correlation functions in terms of the tracking error standard deviation.

  • Chapter 44

    A General Review of Different Methods for Wireless Power Transmission Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The concept of wireless power transmission is as old as the electrical power itself. The scientists were interested in this subject since the generation of the electricity and using it. In fact, whenever the electrical power is generated, the matter of transmitting that power is bounded with it too. So far, wired transmission is still the common method because the wireless power transmitting methods have some drawbacks that make them not ready to be widely used.

    This paper is a general review on wireless power transmission methods that are invented so far. In this paper, it is focused on 4 methods rather than the others because of their practicality. They are magnetic resonance, capacitive coupling, laser and microwave. First of all, The systems and general performances of each method is explained, then some examples of works done so far around the world for the introduced methods are presented and finally, the methods are compared with each other in several aspects.

  • Chapter 45

    Design and Evaluation of Wireless Tele-Control System Considering Channel Equalizer Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this paper, we aim to design a Tele-Control system for the closed-loop control system. Tele-Control system consists of control plant, controller, feedforward channel and feedback channel in the closed-loop control system. Feedforward channel is located between controller and control plant and feedback channel, respectively. Basically, channels would be multipath channel due to the reflections. Therefore, in order to design a suitable controller for the closed-loop system, we have to consider the feedforward channel and feedback channel. In other words we design the controller corresponding to the open-loop system. In this research we have considered the PID controller. Moreover, the effects of channels are reduced after equalization by FIR filter. The stability and performance of the closed-loop system can be evaluated by step response. The control plant is set to be an Osprey in helicopter mode when it takes off. Moreover, we have compared the conventional control system which is without channel and Tele-Control system. Eventually, in conclusion we discussed about the performance and stability of Tele-Control system that even though the closed-loop system can be stabilize but performance will be degraded due to existence of multi delay in channel. Thus, PID parameters are tuned in order to overcome the degradation. Eventually, we could obtain a desirable response. However, there was a reverse overshoot due to existence of multipath channel.

  • Chapter 46

    Dynamic Packet Size Adaptation for Efficient Bluetooth Communication Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Bluetooth is a wireless protocol designed to support shortrange communications with low-power consumption for ubiquitous computing. It is important to maximize the transfer rate of Bluetooth without requiring additional hardware that may increase the cost and power consumption. However, Bluetooth goodput is highly variable in space and time. To improve the goodput as much as possible without requiring a better antenna or more communication bandwidth, we develop a new lightweight method that dynamically adapts the packet length by applying hill climbing methods. To avoid potential local optima in hill climbing, we also support controlled random exploration of different hills, i.e., different packet sizes selected randomly. Our approach is different from most existing work on adaptive rate control in that it measures and enhances the goodput in the application-layer feedback loop neither relying on physical layer metrics (e.g., the received signal strength or signal to noise ratio) nor requiring any changes to the underlying hardware or firmware. Our approach is implemented as an application-layer library by extending a Bluetooth host stack in Linux. Our experiments show that the proposed method for dynamic packet size adaptation efficiently selects an appropriate Bluetooth packet size for goodput enhancement with minimal overheads.

  • Chapter 47

    Implementation of Automotive Platform for Real-Time Diagnosis Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    As vehicle and computer technique are advanced, a vehicle has many electronic control unit (ECU). The ECUs control a series of actuators on an internal combustion engine to ensure the optimum running through reading values from a multitude of sensors within the engine bay, interpreting the data using multidimensional performance maps, and adjusting the engine actuators accordingly. It has utilized on vehicular diagnostic system such as on-board diagnostic version II (OBD-II). The OBD-II collects state of health information for various vehicular sub-systems. We propose automotive platform that can manage vehicle in real-time. It enables an early diagnosis based on storing information in server. It ensures high safety, more comfort.

  • Chapter 48

    Cooperative Communication in Free Space Optical Systems Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    We have investigated the performance improvement of cooperative free space optical (FSO) communication over single input single output (SISO) system in this paper. Bit error rate (BER) analysis for gammagamma channel model with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) has been demonstrated for SISO and cooperative system as well where the performance improvement with different combining techniques in cooperative system has been depicted in this paper. Significant performance improvement is achieved in case of asymmetrical channel model where direct link is facing higher turbulence than the indirect link as compared to symmetrical channel model where all the links are considered to be at same turbulence level. We have shown very good BER performance by using amplify and forward (AF) scheme over decode and forward (DF) scheme for cooperative FSO systems.

  • Chapter 49

    Train Safety Improvements using Microwave Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Article describes use of radio network using 2.45GHz (ISM) frequencies for safety management and logistic in train transportation. Possible uses and expected properties of low cost network based on radio nod equipped train wagons are described. Design of such radio network based on NRF24L01 radios is outlined. This paper also describes testing scenarios for estimated parameter proofing. At the end of the paper are presented results from testing dependency of movement on reliability of communication and first results from real scenario tests. Data shows that concept of placing low cost radios on wagons can be easily used in various situations like radio identification even in high speeds between train and ID reader.

  • Chapter 50

    Parintins Smart Grid Project Backhaul Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Smart Grid solutions are being driven by the desire for more efficient energy usage worldwide. Nowadays Smart Grid communications network is still a heterogeneous network based on many different standards. This paper describes the Smart Grid backhaul deployed in Parintins, city of Brazil, based on network topology presented in [1].

  • Chapter 51

    Yet another Look at the Problem of Detection of Unknown Deterministic Signals over Kappa-mu and Eta-mu Fading Channels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this article, we present an alternative moment generating function (MGF) method for computing the averaging detection probability over stochastic fading channels. In contrast to the existing approaches based on either the circular contour integral or infinite series representation for the generalized Marcum Q-function..

  • Chapter 52

    Evaluation of the Capacity of MIMO-OFDM Free Space Optical Communication System in Strong Turbulent Atmosphere Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In wireless communication Free Space Optical (FSO) communication is an emerging technology to provide high bandwidth and high quality communication. In this work we have evaluated the capacity of the Free Space Optical communication system with Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) technique under strong atmospheric turbulence conditions. The capacity of MIMO-OFDM FSO is evaluated in the presence of Inter symbol Interference (ISI) and is compared with MIMO FSO with ISI. It is found that the effect of ISI is mitigated by using OFDM and the capacity is enhanced. The performance of the system is also compared for Gamma Gamma channel and Negative Exponential channel. It is found that Gamma Gamma channel reduces to Negative Exponential channel in very strong turbulence atmospheric condition.

  • Chapter 53

    Using a ZigBee Wireless Network for Greenhouse Control over the Internet Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    There are many reasons to improve efficiency and quality of a greenhouse. In areas where resources are scarce and conditions are not suitable for plant growth, a greenhouse can provide an efficient and carefully balanced environment. In the last few years, there were a number of improvements made by adding ZigBee wireless network devices at the Washington State University greenhouse, and until now these improvements were only accessible for use from inside of the wireless network. This paper briefly describes how communication can be established over the internet with a number of ZigBee wireless networks to further improve a greenhouse.

  • Chapter 54

    Efficient Processing of Sensor Network Data using Object-Oriented Databases Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications require join of sensor data belonging to various sensor nodes. For join processing, it is important to minimize the communication cost since it is the main consumer of battery power. Most join techniques for sensor data assumes that the sensor data are either stored in OS files or in relational databases. In this paper, we introduce a join technique for sensor networks based on column-oriented databases. A column-oriented database store table data column-wise rather than row-wise as in traditional relational databases. The proposed algorithm is energy-efficient since, unlike relational databases, only relevant columns are shipped to the join region for final join processing.

  • Chapter 55

    GPS and GSM based Points of Interest Localization System for Blind People Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    GPS/GSM based localization system is designed to help blind people navigate and find important for them points of interest (POI) in urban areas. When the GPS localization is not for some time or the system has been just turned on in an unfamiliar place for the blind user, where one cannot get a GPS fix, the GSM based localization is being used in order to find a specific POI or to alert a family member or emergency services about the blind user’s approximate location. In the following paper we present a system overview, its prototype and some tests results.

  • Chapter 56

    A Study on Signal Interference in Clustered WiFi Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    These days, many WiFi devices are trying to generate high throughput and have longer signal coverage which also bring unnecessary signal interference to neighboring wireless networks, and result in decreased network throughput. Signal interference could be minimized by reducing signal coverage of wireless devices. On the other hand, small signal coverage means low transmission power and low data throughput. In the paper, we analyze the relationship among signal strength and network through put by simulation.

  • Chapter 57

    Key Technologies of the Earth Integrated Information Network Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    With the rapid development of computer network technology, aerospace technology and communications technology, the demands of earth integrated information network become increasingly stronger in terms of national defense information and the development of the national economy.According to the course of foreign development process and the interpretation of networking mode,as well as the research on domestic-related advantages research unit, the paper elaborates the key technologies of the earth integrated network which need to be broken through. The key technologies involves architecture, routing, protocol, management, switch and so on, thus will provide a useful reference for our earth integrated information network.

  • Chapter 58

    Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling in Interference-Aware 3-Dimensional WSNs Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this paper, we study the Minimum Latency Aggregation Scheduling (MLAS) problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) adopting the two interference models: the graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR). The main issue of the MLAS problem is to compute schedules with the minimum number of timeslots, that is, to compute the minimum latency schedules, such that data can be aggregated without any collision or interference. While existing works studied the problem in 2-dimensional (2D) WSNs only, we investigate the problem in the more general 3-dimensional (3D) WSNs, and introduce two approximation algorithms with O(1)-approximation ratios that yield schedules whose latency is bounded by O(Δ + R), where Δ is the maximum node degree and R is the network radius. To the best known of our knowledge, our results are the first results of the MLAS problem in 3D WSNs.

  • Chapter 59

    A Comparative Analysis of Hands-on Firewall Configuration Exercises for the 348 Undergraduate Classroom Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Teaching cybersecurity through hands-on, interactive exercises is a good way to engage students, especially undergraduates. In this paper, we compare three firewall configuration exercises: FireSim, DETERLab, and RAVE. We found that they are usable but could be improved upon. They each have strengths and weaknesses, and an exercise combining their strengths would be ideal. There were three main strengths: simplicity, extensibility, and competition. Each of these elements serve to make the exercises engaging and educational.

  • Chapter 60

    New Results on Asymptotic Analysis of Digital Communications in Generalized Fading 353 Channels Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this article, we develop new closed-form asymptotic approximations for the average symbol error rate (ASER) and the outage probability performance metrics of digital communication systems impaired by additive white Gaussian noise and fading. Specifically, our expressions generalize some of the known asymptotic results to a wide range of fading environments and digital modulation schemes. We also demonstrate that the consideration of only the first term and/or the first two terms of a Maclaurin series expansion of the probability density function (PDF) of the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) random variable in conjunction with the Mellin transform of the conditional error probability (CEP) formulas may not be sufficient to yield accurate predictions of the ASER performance and/or outage capacity over a wide range of SNR values.

  • Chapter 61

    Modified GPSR Protocol Using Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) provides routing support for wireless sensor network (WSN) environment. IP addresses don’ t designate the sensor nodes in WSN so, the sensor node is designated by its location. When the receiver is outside the sensing field boundary, GPSR suffers by energy inefficiency because it has to route through all the sensor nodes in the boundary until reach the receiver. The GPSR utilizes a greedy forwarding strategy and perimeter forwarding strategy to route messages to receiver. It uses a neighbourhood message that contains the identity of a sensor node and its location. However, instead of sending this message periodically and the network is congested, GPSR piggybacks the neighbourhood message on each message that is sent or forwarded by the sensor node. GPSR finds a sensor node that is nearer to the receiver than itself and forwards the message to that sensor node. This method fails sometime so, the GPSR presents another method which is called perimeter routing which utilizes the right-hand graph traversal rule. In this paper, we present modification to GPSR routing when the sensor node has data to transmit. We exploit the movement of data collector to guarantee the message that carry the location of data collector reach properly without unnecessary transmissions to outside the sensing region. Consequently the lifetime is maximized. Simulation results prove that our modification to GPSR increases the lifetime of WSN.

  • Chapter 62

    AODV Security Considerations Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a reactive routing protocol in which the network generates routes at the start of communication. AODV has been developed specifically for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). It obtains the routes purely on-demand which is makes it a very useful and desired algorithm for MANETs. AODV protocol is suffered from external and internal attacks which are disturb the protocol operation. This paper begins with review of AODV protocol and describes the mechanism of how AODV protocol is work. Then the security consideration in AODV is presented as well as the methods that were proposed to protect AODV from impersonation and modification attacks.

  • Chapter 63

    A Framework For Mult-Mobile Orientation Models Using an Extended Kalman Filter and NFC Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Mobile devices have become the primary method for person to person connection, and with new techniques of data creation and transfer, new methods of connecting people are constantly being developed. Many of these methods have incorporated location to enhance the user experience, but few of these use user location to its full potential and none use it to directly relate users to each other with significant precision. In this paper, a framework is discussed that could be implemented using various sensors and network data available on mobile devices to achieve a method for precisely relating two or more mobile devices based on distance and orientation.

  • Chapter 64

    Modeling Aspects of MIMO Communication Channels Based on Space-Time Block Codes Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In wireless communications, transmitting large amounts of data, at high speed and low error probability, is a major challenge. In this paper, modeling aspects of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) communication channels are studied, using binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and Alamouti space-time block code (STBC) with 2 transmitting and 2 receiving antennas. Alamouti code performance is simulated for different values of signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) and fading channel characteristics. Simulation results and performance analysis on image broadcasting using Alamouti STBC are presented for a grayscale rose image, which is more sensible to noise. The distribution analysis of error bits into the data stream and also into the error bytes are computed. The error bits are well distributed in accordance with the model of MIMO channel.

  • Chapter 65

    Study of the Feasibility of Radio over Fiber Technology for WiMAX Systems Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    To meet the explosive demands of high-capacity and broadband wireless access, modern cell based wireless networks have trends, i.e., continuous increase in the number of cells and utilization of higher frequency bands. It leads to a large amount of base stations (BSs) to be deployed; therefore, cost-effective BS development is a key to success in the market. In order to reduce the system cost, radio over fiber (RoF) technology has been proposed since it provides functionally simple BSs that are interconnected to a central control station (CS) via an optical fiber. The well known advantages of optical fiber as a transmission medium such as low loss, light weight, large bandwidth characteristics, small size and low cable cost make it the ideal and most flexible solution for efficiently transporting radio signals to remotely located antenna sites in a wireless network. In addition to its transmission properties, the insensitivity of fiber optic cables to electromagnetic radiation is a key benefit in their implementation as the backbone of a wireless network. This paper will provide an overview of RoF technology, followed by the description of suitable architectures for the deployment of WiMAX networks employing RoF systems. Main issues and challenges in the deployment of WiMAX employing RoF technology will be discussed in detail after reviewing some experimental and theoretical work. Furthermore, a simulation model for IEEE 802.16e is studied and simulation results are shown.

  • Chapter 66

    City-wide Coordinated Ramp Metering Based on Wireless Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are considered to be one of the useful technologies with extensive range of applications. Ramp metering is considered as an effective way to solve traffic congestion. In this paper, we evaluate some of the current solutions and study their effectiveness. Moreover, we develop a coordinated ramp metering technique that covers a larger area of highways within a city. This system composed of a set of ramps, ramp metering controllers, and a traffic control center components. In order to test and evaluate the proposed algorithm used in the system, a simulation is used on a network of road interchanges (named A, B, C, and D). The simulated results show that for interchange B, the time spent of traffic has been reduced by 34.4% compared to the normal case. 38% traffic flow improvement for Interchange C, and 41.6% improvement for interchange D.

  • Chapter 67

    Mobile-Based Location Estimation Using Single Base Station Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    The location of subscribers has received huge attention in application for the wireless services. It is well-known that the satellite-based positioning system (GPS- Global Positioning System) is a sufficient and reliable technique for coordinating services. Many techniques using base-stations depend on some wireless parameters such as signal strength, reflection factors, ducting are now being deployed for estimating the locations of the subscribers. This paper discusses some scenarios of wireless mobile location estimation by utilizing only single base-station (BS). A site of Al-Dhahran city in KSA will form the base map for the proposed scenarios and proper solutions will be suggested accordingly. The simulation results performance of the approaches used will be compared with the FCC standard readings

  • Chapter 68

    Mobile Computing Security Issues Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Laptop computers, cell phones, mobile data storage devices, and similar mobile computing and communication devices have become very popular because of their convenience and portability. This has led to the creation of a new computing platform called mobile computing. However, the use of such devices in this new platform is accompanied by new security risks that must be recognized and addressed to protect the physical devices, the communication medium, and the information used. In this paper I will investigate and discuss the new security issues introduced by mobile computing, and summarize the current existing security measures and proposed solutions for these issues.

  • Chapter 69

    Low Complexity Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Decoder Architecture for IEEE 80211n Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    In this paper, we present a fully pipelined LDPC decoder for 802.11n standard that supports variable block sizes and multiple code rates. The proposed architecture utilizes features of Quasi-Cyclic LDPC codes and layered decoding to reduce memory bits and interconnection complexity through efficient utilization of permutation network for forward and backward interconnection routing. Permutation network reorganization reduced the overall resources required for routing, thus reducing the overall decoder dynamic power consumption. Proposed architecture has been synthesized using Virtex-6 FPGA and achieved 19% reduction in dynamic power consumption, 5% less logic resources and 12% increase in throughput.

  • Chapter 70

    Performance Analysis of a WiMAXWi-Fi System Whilst Streaming Different Video Conference Applications with Varying Network Loads Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    WiMAX and Wi-Fi are considered as the promising broadband access solutions for wireless MAN’s and LANs, respectively. In the recent works WiMAX is considered suitable as a backhaul service to connect multiple dispersed Wi-Fi ‘hotspots’. Hence a new integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi architecture has been proposed in literatures. In this paper the performance of an integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi network has been investigated by streaming different video conference applications which vary the network load. The difference in performance between the two network connections WiMAX and Wi-Fi is compared with respect to video conferencing. The Heterogeneous network was simulated in the OPNET simulator. Results show that such a heterogeneous network can support a high resolution video conference application and a low resolution video conference application but not a VCR quality video conference application.

  • Chapter 71

    Security in Ubiquitous Computing A Work in Progress Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Ubiquitous computing change normal physical space into intelligent active space with enhanced services to users. This new field of computing still has some security limitations. In this paper we provide an overview of Ubiquitous Computing security concerns .Furthermore we discuss some issues such as access control and privacy preserving in authentication models. We present access control models and show why the traditional methods are not suitable to use in ubiquitous computing environments. We discuss a trust based access control model and propose a simple UCE example with a simple pseudo code. Also we argue the privacy problem with authentication in Ubiquitous Computing Environment and exhibit two models and compare their security properties.

  • Chapter 72

    Wireless Overlay Sensor Networks Price 2.99  |  2.99 Rewards Points

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have been in the forefront of distributed autonomus network research in recent years. A majority of the research in this area has used the physical topology of the radio network as the underlying platform for understanding the many issues in WSNs. Unlike traditional networks where an individual node is assumed to be a reliable component of the network, a single node in a wireless sensor network may not hold much importance. Thus, a WSN model in which a collection of nodes that cooperate with each other to carry out a specific network function is a more suitable model in terms of utilizing redundancies in sensing, data aggregation and forwarding. To this end, we have introduced the concept of Overlay Sensor Networks (OSN), which treats the sensor network as an abstract set of vertices and edges based on the position of nodes in the network. In a past work, we showed that planar graph routing in an an Overlay Sensor Network performs better than routing on the physical network topology. In this work, we would like to investigate the possibility of using traditional routing protocols (such as Distance Vector) in an OSN. Answers from this study will help us better understand the tradeoffs in using such abstractions for efficient operation of a Wireless Sensor Network.

About the Author

The University of Georgia (Tbilisi) · Physics Department. Spacial Department view complete profile


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