The authors have made adequate use of all the available materials for preparing UGC Tests and relevant publications by various authors. The authors have consolidated all the available information in a single volume. They would like to express their deep sense of gratitude to all those who have contributed to the present publication. We are deeply indebted to our most beloved and venerable Guru, Prof. (Dr) A. Sukumaran Nair, former Vice Chancellor of Mahatma Gandhi University for his timely suggestions and expert help and unstinted support which made possible the publication of the present volume. Dr. Nair has been associated with many of the apex bodies, connected with teacher education and higher education like the UGC, NAAC, ICSSR, NCERT, NCTE to name a few. Both the authors of this book were fortunate to be his students and were inspired by his dynamism, expertise and innovative approach to modern education. We have no words to place on record our immense gratitude to our Professor for sparing his valuable time for scrutinizing and correcting the manuscript of this book. We fail to find out an appropriate word in the dictionary that would convey our deep gratitude to our Hon. Vice Chancellor, Dr. M. Abdul Salam. He has so generously accepted our request to go through this big volume. Though we were hesistant to ask such a busy person to write a forwarding note to this book, the way he accepted our request and the encouragement rendered to us make us bow our heads before his graciousness. Despite his hectic official responsibilities Dr. M. Abdul Salam, who is a scientist by profession, spared his precious time to examine these 850 pages and prepared a foreword to his book. We are deeply indebted to him. The authors intend to make periodical revisions of this book every year so as to update the content of the book. We will be greatly obliged to those who point out the mistakes or ambiguities, in this edition, or suggestions if any. We assure them that this will be used for improving the future editions. Wish you all success in the examinations.